After 24 hours treatment 17DMAG clinical trial with 100 μM TQ about 87.59% of NCI-H460 cells and 88.1% of NCI-H146 cells were positive for Annexin-V compared
to 2.0% and 34.5% Annexin V positive cells in the DMSO treated cell (Figure 6) Figure 6 Flowcytometry data showing apoptosis in both NSCLC (NCI-H460) and SCLC (NCI-H146) cell lines 24 hrs after treatment with TQ 100 μM. 87.59% of NCI-H460 cells and 88.1% of NCI-H146 cells were positive for Annexin-V 24 hrs after treatment with TQ. Upper row represent NCI-H460 cells and Lower row NCI-H146. Left column represents control treated and the right column represents TQ treated. 3) TQ suppresses expression of cytokines involved in neo-angiogenesis To assess the effect of TQ on release of various cytokines we assayed the culture media to determine if TQ affected expression of cytokines in NCI-H460 cell line. Of the panel of various cytokines measured using RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array C Series 2000, two
cytokines ENA-78 and Gro-alpha were significantly lower in the media of cells exposed to 100 μM TQ as compared to control. The mean integrated density as measured by Image J Software for ENA-78 in the control treated group was 7083 as compared to 1732 in the TQ treated group and for Gro-alpha in the control group mean integrated density was 9970 as compared to 1877 in the TQ treated group (See figure 7-8) click here Figure 7 Effect of TQ on release of various cytokines was determined using RayBio Human Cytokines Antibody Array C Series 2000. TQ treated cell media was applied to cytokine membranes which were then
exposed to a photographic film for 30 minutes and developed in a dark room. The three membranes represent various cytokines whose presence can be detected using this technique. Dots represent presence or absence Demeclocycline of various cytokines which were then quantitated using image J Software expressed as mean integrated density. Figure 8 TQ suppressed expression of cytokines ENA-78 and GRO-alpha significantly as compared to control. These cytokines are implicated in neo-angiogenesis. 4) TQ inhibits invasion in a Matrigel assay Because of the known effects of TQ on decreasing Selleck GW572016 specific cytokines production and the known effects of cytokines on tumor cell invasion, we determined the effects of TQ on tumor cell invasion as assayed by growth into Matrigel. TQ at three concentrations (20, 40 and 80 μM) significantly inhibited invasion as compared to control (P < 0.05). Inhibition of invasion was greatest at 40 μM where inhibition was 85% as compared to control (Figure 9) Figure 9 Effect of TQ on invasion was assessed calculating number of cells invading into Matrigel. TQ at increasing concentration inhibited cell invasion as compared to control. 5) Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and toxicity study Prior to determining the effect of TQ on the growth of xenografts we studied the toxicity of TQ and CDDP alone and in combination as noted in the Methods to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD).