However, there is no published study concerning this matter

However, there is no published study concerning this matter considering in classical ballet dancers. For this reason, we decided to examine whether adding a supplementary low intensity aerobic training program to regular dance practice would improve VO2max and psychomotor performance in classical ballet dancers. Material and Methods Subjects Six professional female ballet dancers volunteered for the study. All the subjects started dancing at 9 years of age and were subjected to regular dance training for at least 12 years. During their work as members of the corps de ballet (including at least two years immediately preceding the study) they danced on the average about 6 times (a total of 24 h) per week. They had not been involved in other forms of regular physical activity.

After being informed about the purpose of the study, all the subjects signed a written consent to participate in the study. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland. All the volunteers were clinically healthy and in good nutritional status, and their habitual diet was assessed with the use of a questionnaire. The dancers recorded their food intake over a 3-day period just before the commencement of exercise tests, and the daily records were analyzed for energy and macronutrients intake using a computer program Dietus (B.U.I. InFit 1995, Poland). Basic anthropometric characteristics of the subjects are presented in Table 1.

Table 1 Basic anthropometric characteristics of the studied subjects Study design The experimental protocol consisted of anthropometric measurements, a psychomotor performance test and graded exercise test for the evaluation of VO2max and anaerobic threshold (AT). All anthropometric measurements, the psychomotor performance test and exercise test were performed both prior to the beginning of aerobic training (pre-T) and following a 6-week supplementary aerobic training (post�CT). Body composition was assessed using bio-electrical impedance (Tanita body composition analyzer TBF-300). All subjects cycled on a 828 Monark (Sweden) ergometer with intensity increasing by 30 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. Minute ventilation (Ve) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were analyzed continuously (breath-by-breath) for 1 min at rest and at the third minute of each workload using standard technique of open-circuit spirometry (Yeager).

Heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously using a PE 3000 Sport Tester (Polar Electro, Finland). To determine the anaerobic threshold, fingertip capillary blood samples for lactate concentration assessment were taken at rest, at the third minute of each workload, and at the fifth minute of Cilengitide post-exercise recovery. Blood lactate concentration was measured by the standard enzymatic method using commercial kits (Boehringer-Mannheim, Germany) and a model UV-1201 UV/VIS Shimadzu spectrophotometer.

Muscle torques and power output developed on a cycle ergometer sh

Muscle torques and power output developed on a cycle ergometer showed significant positive correlations with the mesomorphic component while significant Belinostat fda negative ones with ectomorphy. Acknowledgments The study was supported by Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Grant No. AWF – Ds.-134).
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basic and evoked blood flow in the skin microcirculation of the hand, one day and ten days after a series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions, in healthy individuals. The study group included 32 volunteers �C 16 women and 16 men. The volunteers underwent 10 sessions of cryotherapy in a cryogenic chamber. The variables were recorded before the series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions (first measurement), one day after the last session (second measurement) and ten days later (third measurement).

Rest flow, post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, reaction to temperature and arterio�Cvenous reflex index were evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry. The values recorded for rest flow, a post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, a reaction to temperature and arterio �C venous reflex index were significantly higher both in the second and third measurement compared to the initial one. Differences were recorded both in men and women. The values of frequency in the range of 0,01 Hz to 2 Hz (heart frequency dependent) were significantly lower after whole-body cryostimulation in both men and women. In the range of myogenic frequency significantly higher values were recorded in the second and third measurement compared to the first one.

Recorded data suggest improved response of the cutaneous microcirculation to applied stimuli in both women and men. Positive effects of cryostimulation persist in the tested group for 10 consecutive days. Keywords: cryotherapy, skin blood flow, rest flow, post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, arterio�Cvenous reflex index Introduction Whole body cryotherapy (WBCT) is more and more frequently used to complete pharmacotherapy and kinesiotherapy that are applied in rheumatologic and neurological diseases as well as in therapy of injuries of the locomotor system or in overload syndromes. It is also a modern, effective and safe procedure for athletes�� recovery (Hubbard et al., 2004).

The procedure of whole body cryostimulation is based on exposure of the organism to extremely low temperature (?110��C to ?160��C) for a very short period (1 �C 3 minutes) without provoking hypothermia or congelation (Westerlund et al., 2003). Cryogenic temperatures trigger physiological thermoregulation mechanisms, which results Carfilzomib in analgesic (Long et al., 2005; Brandner et al., 1996; Ingersoll et al., 1991), anti-inflammatory (Banfi et al., 2010; Knight, 1995), anti-oedematic (Meeusun et al., 1998) and anti-oxidative effects (Akhalaya et al., 2006; Dugue et al., 2005) and stimulate the immune system (Lubkowska et al., 2010b).

, 2009) In short, it is obvious that this anthropometric charact

, 2009). In short, it is obvious that this anthropometric characteristic allows them to cover the wider space of the goal and hence selleckchem to defend the net more successfully. Because of the constant contact during the game, Centers are known to be the largest of all players in terms of body length and body mass. Therefore, it was not surprising that, although similar to the Points and Goalkeepers in BH, the Centers are the heaviest and have the highest BMI of all five playing positions. Apparently, their increased BM and BMI are partially but not entirely related to increased body fat (i.e. Centers have higher skinfolds than the Goalkeepers and Wings, but there is no significant difference in any of the body fat measures between the Centers, Points and Drivers).

This is in line with previous findings where authors discussed the clear need for a Center��s morphological-anthropometric dominance in terms of advanced BM, especially against rival Points (M. Lozovina, et al., 2009). More precisely, these two playing-positions are direct opponents (i.e. the Point guards the offensive Center) and if a Center wants to be effective in his/her offensive tasks, he/she must be physically superior to the defensive player guarding him (her). Although previous studies rarely studied water polo goalkeepers with regard to their anthropometric status, the results of the Goalkeepers�� anthropometric variables did not surprise us. Most particularly, they are slightly, although not significantly dominant in AS, and have the lowest BMI of all players.

Such an anthropometric profile allows them to cover the net efficiently (because of their large arm span) and to change position quickly (because of their low BMI). Since the official rules of water polo protect Goalkeepers from the contact-game, their low BMI is clearly a function of their agile movement and quick positioning in front of the goal with regard to offensive actions and his/her team��s defensive tactics. The importance of the specific physical fitness profile of different playing positions is already recognized in team sports (Ben Abdelkrim et al., 2010; Markovic and Mikulic, 2011; Pyne et al., 2006), but such studies are evidently scarce in water polo, especially among junior players. Therefore, the results of the specific physical fitness tests we presented above are hardly comparable to previous findings.

Although the playing positions did not differ significantly in the lactate capacity (4x50m) and 100m swimming results, the swimming performance GSK-3 measured by swimming 25m (ATPCP capacity), and 400m (aerobic capacity) revealed the Points to be the best swimmers. According to previous studies, the background to such findings should be identified through anthropometric profiles. In a recent study where authors identified the optimal morphological/anthropometric characteristics of young competitive swimmers, Sekulic et al.

Cronbach��s �� values for the seven

Cronbach��s �� values for the seven selleck Sorafenib produced factors ranged from .42 to .51 and test-retest reliability values from .41 to .51. Confirmatory factor analysis Confirmatory factor analysis, using a different sample (n3=288) of athletes, was conducted to confirm the previously obtained factorial structure. The confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with a computer program Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS; Arbuckle, 1997). The primary index used for model fit was the ��root mean square error of approximation�� (RMSEA), which is a measure of the mean discrepancy between the observed covariances and those implied by the model per degree of freedom. Values less than 0.05 are indicators of a good fit. Certain researchers consider 0.08 as an acceptable cut-off value, but certainly an RMSEA value above 0.

1 indicates a poor model fit. Two additional incremental fit indices are reported: TLI and CFI. The TLI, (Tucker-Lewis coefficient), belongs to the family of indices that compare the discrepancy of the specified model in comparison to the baseline model (Bentler & Bonett, 1980; Bollen, 1989). The typical range for TLI lies between 0 and 1, but it is not limited to that range. TLI values close to 1 indicate a very good fit. A value of TLI=0.9 is considered a cut-off value, above which there is an indication of a good model fit. The same criteria apply for the CFI (comparative fit index). The confirmatory factor analysis for the overall model gave an RMSEA value of 0.049, with TLI=0.892 and CFI=0.911, providing acceptance for the structure of the inventory.

Following the analysis for the total model, separate confirmatory factor analyses were performed for each factor (Table 3). Table 3 shows the fit indices of confirmatory factor analysis for the model fit of each individual factor. The RMSEA values for the factors activation, automaticity, and self talk are above the value of 0.1. Table 3 Confirmatory factor analysis of the subscales of the TOPS-CS (group 3=288 athletes) Discussion The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Competition Scale of the TOPS in Greek athletic population. The TOPS-CS is designed to assess the psychological strategies used by athletes in competition, thus giving valuable information to coaches and practitioners about the psychological parameters underlying athletic performance.

In the present study, results differentiate a lot depending on the athletes�� age group. In the first study, Entinostat for athletes aged 16�C20 years, exploratory factor analysis produced an acceptable eight factor structure, a result also found in other studies (Jackson et al., 2000; Taylor et al., 2000). The eight factors hypothesized to underlie the items were: self-talk, emotional control, automaticity, goal-setting, imagery, relaxation, activation and negative thinking. In the exploratory factor analysis, all factors were obtained.

The highest jump was used for analysis VJPP and VJMP were determ

The highest jump was used for analysis. VJPP and VJMP were determined using equations from Johnson and Bahamonde (1996). After VJ testing was complete, participants rested for 5 min before performing 3 maximal 20 m sprints with 3 min of rest between sprints. Sprint times were recorded using a wireless selleck catalog TC-System (Brower Timing Systems, Draper, Utah, USA). Timing gates were set at 10 and 20 m so that both distances could be recorded simultaneously. Participants used a standing 2-point start position. The timing clock started when the subjects�� rear foot left the ground. All performance testing for session 2 was conducted in a large, open gymnasium with wooden floors. Participants attended a third and final session, during which they performed eight resisted sprints on a non-motorized treadmill (Force 3.

0, Woodway, Waukesha, WI, USA). Similar to session 2, this session was preceded by a dynamic warm-up involving calisthenics, submaximal walking, and submaximal jogging on the treadmill. Chia and Lim (2008) determined that peak power elicited during repeated sprints on non-motorized treadmills can be impacted by a rest period, and indicated that it is essential to use a minimum of 2 min rest between efforts to maintain a consistent peak power measurement. Therefore, 3 min of seated rest was given between sprints. Resisted sprints were performed with non-randomized increasing relative loads expressed as percent of body weight: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 percent of body weight. Sprint peak power (SPP) was measured for each load to help determine which relative load elicited each participant��s greatest SPP.

On the rear shaft of the treadmill there is a speed sensor that directly measures the distance. The sensor is a digital encoder and the resolution is 2 cm per pulse. Pacer software digitally filters (at selected cut-off frequency) the distance/time data and then differentiates using the finite difference technique to produce velocity data. Pacer software digitally filters (at selected cut-off frequency) the distance/time data and then double differentiates using the finite difference technique to produce acceleration data. Pacer software calculates the product of the instantaneous velocity and horizontal force to determine the instantaneous power. Horizontal force is directly measured from the load cell connected to the user��s waist tether.

Vertical force is directly measured from the 4 load cells mounted under the running belt. An older version of the Woodway has previously been validated to be able to assess power (Lakomy, 1984). After SPP testing was complete, participants were given 5 min of seated rest before being tested for leg press 1 RM (LPMAX), leg press 1 RM relative to body weight (RELBW), leg press 1 RM relative to lean body mass (RELLBM), leg press AV-951 1 RM power (MAXPOW), and leg press power at 80% of 1 RM (LP80POW) using an Air300 Leg Press (Keiser, Fresno, CA, USA).