In mouse osteoclast cells, mechanical stimulation through FAK activation stabilized beta-catenin protein to promote its nuclear translocation. In contrast, in the mouse intestine, FAK activity was induced downstream of Wnt to promote intestinal regeneration and was also essential for tumorigenesis in
an APC deletion model of colorectal cancer. Adding to this complexity, in human cell lines, FAK induced a context-dependent modulation of Wnt signaling to activate target-gene expression. Other diseases are also associated with FAK and Wnt pathway over-activation. Increased FAK and Wnt pathway activities were independently implicated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a lung disease of unknown etiology. Revealing the FAK-Wnt connection in IPF could PF-00299804 nmr provide a better understanding of disease pathology. There appear to be multiple interactions between the Wnt/beta-catenin and FAK signaling pathways in different cell selleck chemical types and organisms. Mutual FAK-Wnt pathway regulation could be a general phenomenon, having many still undetermined roles in either
normal physiological or disease processes.”
“Type 2 diabetes (T2D) remission after bariatric procedures has been highlighted in many retrospective and some recent prospective studies. However, in the most recent prospective study, more than 50 % of patients did not reach T2D remission at 1 year. Our aim was to identify baseline positive predictors for T2D remission at 1 year after bariatric surgery and to build a preoperative predictive score. We analysed the data concerning 161 obese operated on between June 2007 and December Selleck Duvelisib 2010. Among them, 46 were diabetic and were included in the study-11 laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), 26 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 9 sleeve gastrectomy (SG). We compared anthropometric and metabolic features during 1 year of follow-up. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to predict T2D remission. RYGB and SG were similarly efficient for
body weight loss and more efficient than LAGB; 62.8 % of patients presented with T2DM remission at 1 year, with no significant difference according to the surgical procedure. A 1-year body mass index (BMI) < 35 kg m(-2) was predictive of T2DM remission whatever the procedure. The preoperative predictive factors of diabetes remission were baseline BMI a parts per thousand currency sign50 kg m(-2), duration of type 2 diabetes a parts per thousand currency sign4 years, glycated haemoglobin a parts per thousand currency sign7.1 %, fasting glucose < 1.14 g/l and absence of insulin therapy. A short duration of diabetes and good preoperative glycaemic control increase the rate of T2DM remission 1 year after surgery. Preoperative metabolic data could be of greater importance than the choice of bariatric procedure.”
“The morbidity and mortality conference (M&M) is a long-standing practice in medicine.
ResultsThe capped pulps initially exhibited superficial necrotic changes followed by the formation of new matrix and its mineralization. DMP1 immunoreactivity was observed in the matrix beneath the necrotic layer from 6h onwards and present in the outer portion of the newly formed mineralized matrix from 7days onwards. Osteopontin displayed a similar expression pattern, although it occupied
buy Ricolinostat a narrower area than DMP1 at 6 and 12h. Nestin-immunoreactive cells appeared beneath the DMP1-immunoreactive area at 1day, were distributed beneath the newly formed matrix at 5days and exhibited odontoblast-like morphology by 14days. BrdU-positive cells significantly increased at 2 and 3days (P smaller than 0.05) and then decreased. ConclusionsThe deposition of DMP1 at exposed pulp sites preceded the appearance of nestin-immunoreactive cells, active cell proliferation and new matrix formation after pulp capping with calcium hydroxide in Selleckchem S63845 rat molars, suggesting that DMP1 acts as a trigger
of pulp repair. The colocalization of DMP1 and osteopontin suggests that these two proteins play complementary roles.”
“Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. And overnutrition is a leading cause of obesity. After most nutrients are ingested, they are absorbed in the small intestine. Signals from -catenin are essential to maintain development of the small intestine and homeostasis. In this study, we used a hyperphagia db/db obese mouse model and a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model to investigate the
effects of overnutrition on intestinal function and -catenin signaling. The -catenin protein was upregulated along with inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 in the intestines of both db/db and HFD mice. Proliferation of intestinal epithelial stem cells, villi length, nutrient absorption, and body weight also increased in both models. These changes were reversed by caloric restriction in db/db mice and by -catenin inhibitor JW55 (a small molecule that increases -catenin degradation) in HFD mice. Parallel, in vitro experiments showed that -catenin accumulation and cell proliferation stimulated by glucose were blocked by the -catenin inhibitor FH535. And the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR98014 in an intestinal Selleckchem VX770 epithelial cell line increased -catenin accumulation and cyclin D1 expression. These results suggested that, besides contribution to intestinal development and homeostasis, GSK-3/-catenin signaling plays a central role in intestinal morphological and functional changes in response to overnutrition. Manipulating the GSK-3/-catenin signaling pathway in intestinal epithelium might become a therapeutic intervention for obesity induced by overnutrition.”
“We report case of an infant who presented with failure to thrive and developmental delay at 4 months of age.
(C) 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.”
“We BIX 01294 manufacturer have developed and characterized 21 microsatellite markers in the aphidophagous gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). All 21 loci tested were polymorphic: the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 17. Allelic richness and observed heterozygosities were higher in females than in males. Several loci had no heterozygosity in males, suggesting that the loci were located on sex chromosomes or E-chromosomes, common to cecidomyiids. The high polymorphism detected in this study suggests the markers will
be of value in analyzing genetic structure of field populations.”
“Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) in adults represents nearly 2 to 5 % of all acute leukemia cases. There are two large studies throughout the world and only case reports and small series have been reported in Latin America. This study retrospectively analyses
NSC23766 cost the clinical characteristics and survival of 27 patients with MPAL evaluated in three medical institutions of Mexico. All cases meet World Health Organization 2008 criteria; 70.3 % of patients had B lymphoid/myeloid lineage MPAL. Induction chemotherapy protocols included 7 + 3 hyper-CVAD, high-density schedules, and pediatric-like regimens such as New York II and total XI. Complete remission was achieved in 23/27 patients (85.2 %). Only one patient died due to chemotherapy-induced aplasia during remission induction (5.2 %). In 68 % of cases, we were able to administer maintenance
therapy as a regimen in lymphoblastic leukemia. At the time of analysis, 70.4 % of the patients in the entire cohort had died mainly as result of disease progression (73.6 %). Disease-free survival was 13 months (95 % CI, 9.6-16.3 months) and overall survival was 14.8 months (95 % CI 13.4-16.27). Survival rates selleck chemicals llc are low and standardized therapy for the management of this type of leukemia is still lacking. This is the largest series reported in Mexico and to the best of our knowledge in Latin America.”
“OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the serological status of dogs living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area and its correlation with the parasitological condition of the animals. METHODS: Canine humoral response was evaluated using the sera of 134 dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry to detect parasites in the skin, lymph node, and spleen of the animals. The specific antibodies investigated were IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE. RESULTS: According to the parasitological, laboratory, and clinical findings, the dogs were placed into one of four groups: asymptomatic with (AP+, n = 21) or without (AP-, n = 36) Leishmania tissue parasitism and symptomatic with (SP+, n = 52) or without (SP-, n = 25) parasitism. Higher IgG and IgE levels were positively correlated with the infection condition and parasite load, but not with the clinical status.
The primary objective was to determine superiority of dulaglutide 1.5 mg versus placebo in HbA(1c) change at 26 weeks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This 52-week, multicenter, parallel-arm study (primary end point: 26 weeks) randomized patients (2: 2: 2: 1) to dulaglutide 1.5 mg,
dulaglutide 0.75 mg, exenatide 10 mg, or placebo (placebo-controlled period: 26 weeks). Patients were treated with metformin (1,500-3,000 mg) and pioglitazone (30-45 mg). Mean baseline HbA(1c) was 8.1% (65 mmol/mol). RESULTS Least squares mean 6 SE HbA(1c) change from baseline to the primary end point was -1.51 +/- GSK461364 0.06% (-16.5 +/- 0.7 mmol/mol) for dulaglutide 1.5 mg, -1.30 +/- 0.06% (-14.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/mol) for dulaglutide 0.75 mg, -0.99 +/- 0.06% (-10.8 +/- 0.7 mmol/mol) for exenatide, and -0.46 +/- 0.08% (-5.0 +/- 0.9 mmol/mol) for placebo. Both dulaglutide doses were superior to placebo at 26 weeks (both adjusted one-sided P smaller than 0.001) and exenatide at 26 and 52 weeks (both adjusted one-sided P smaller than 0.001). Greater percentages of patients reached HbA(1c) targets with dulaglutide 1.5 mg and 0.75 mg than with placebo and exenatide (all P smaller than 0.001). At 26 and 52 Cediranib weeks, total hypoglycemia incidence was lower in patients receiving dulaglutide 1.5 mg than in those receiving exenatide; no dulaglutide-treated patients reported severe hypoglycemia.
The most common gastrointestinal adverse events for dulaglutide were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Events were mostly mild to moderate and transient. CONCLUSIONS Both once-weekly dulaglutide doses demonstrated superior glycemic control versus placebo and exenatide with an acceptable tolerability and safety profile.”
“Background: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) measured by transcranial sonography (TCS) is a characteristic feature observed in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). To our knowledge, no SN hyperechogenicity
data are available for Polish population. Moreover most of studies come from few centres, which used the one type of ultrasound Cyclosporin A device. The main aim of the study was to investigate the association between PD and SN hyperechogenicity measured by sonographic machine, not assessed so far. Materials and methods: In this study cross-sectional study SN hyperechogenicity was evaluated in 102 PD patients and 95 control subjects. Midbrain was visualised by Aloka Prosound 7 ultrasound device. SN area measurement, the relation to the clinical features of PD, inter- and intra-observer reliability were evaluated. Results: We confirmed that SN echogenicity is significantly increased in PD patients compared to control subjects (p smaller than 0.001). The area under curve for PD patients vs. controls was 0.93. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated a cut-offs for SN echogenicity at 0.19 cm(2) with accuracy equal to 90%, specificity – 86% and sensitivity – 93.7%. The SN hyperechogenicity was not related to PD clinical findings.
With all weight-related factors in the model, only waist circumference was related to LBP in women. For women, the odds ratios of LBP
were 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.8, 1.8) for a waist circumference of 80-87.9 cm and 1.8 ( 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.2) for a waist circumference of >= 88 cm compared with a waist circumference of < 80 cm. This association was independent of C- reactive protein, leptin, and adiponectin levels. The authors’ findings in a relatively young population suggest that abdominal obesity may increase the risk of Selleck Alvocidib LBP in women.”
“The enzyme catalase catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide Pevonedistat in vivo into oxygen and water. It is the main regulator of hydrogen peroxide metabolism. Hydrogen
peroxide is a highly reactive small molecule formed as a natural byproducts of energy metabolism. Excessive concentrations may cause significant damages to protein, DNA, RNA and lipids. Low levels in muscle cells, facilitate insulin signaling. Acatalasemia is a result of the homozygous mutations in the catalase gene, has a worldwide distribution with 12 known mutations. Increased hydrogen peroxide, due to catalase deficiency, plays a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Examination of Hungarian diabetic and acatalasemic patients showed that an increased frequency
of catalase gene mutations exists among diabetes patients. Inherited catalase deficiency may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially for females. Early onset of type 2 diabetes occurs with inherited catalase deficiency. Low levels of SOD and glutathione peroxidase could contribute to complications caused PCI-32765 by increased oxidative stress. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This minireview highlights the importance of cannabidiol (CBD) as a promising drug for the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Actual pharmacological treatments for IBD should be enlarged toward the search for low-toxicityand low-cost drugs that may be given alone or in combination with the conventional anti-IBD drugs to increase their efficacy in the therapy of relapsing forms of colitis. In the past, Cannabis preparations have been considered new promising pharmacological tools in view of their anti-inflammatory role in IBD as well as other gut disturbances. However, their use in the clinical therapy has been strongly limited by their psychotropic effects. CBD is a very promising compound since it shares the typical cannabinoid beneficial effects on gut lacking any psychotropic effects.
AEs occurred frequently (50.4% of all SIT cycles) but were mild. In sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) treatment, local intraoral immediate reactions were most common (44.9% SLIT
cycles), as compared with delayed reactions around the injection site in SCIT (28.3% SCIT cycles). An asthma diagnosis had no impact on the number of cycles with AEs, or the severity reported. Few cycles (2.9%) were discontinued as a result of AE(s).\n\nConclusions and Clinical Relevance Pollen ASP2215 ic50 SIT is available across England, though small numbers of children are being treated. Current national guidelines to exclude asthmatic children in SIT programmes are not being adhered to by most specialist paediatric allergy centres. SCIT and SLIT has been well tolerated. Review of patient selection criteria is needed and may allow greater use of this therapeutic option in appropriate clinical settings.”
“Spurs are tubular outgrowths of perianth organs that have evolved iteratively among angiosperms. They typically contain nectar and often strongly influence pollinator specificity, potentially mediating reproductive isolation. The selleck screening library identification of Antirrhinum majus mutants with ectopic petal spurs suggested that petal-spur development is dependent on the expression of KNOTTED 1-like homeobox (KNOX) genes, which are better known for their role in maintaining the shoot apical meristem.
Here, we tested the role of KNOX genes in petal-spur development by isolating orthologs Natural Product Library of the A. majus KNOX genes Hirzina (AmHirz) and Invaginata (AmIna) from Linaria vulgaris, a related species that differs from A. majus in possessing long, narrow petal spurs. We name these genes LvHirz and LvIna, respectively. Using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, we show that LvHirz is expressed at high
levels in the developing petals and demonstrate that the expression of petal-associated KNOX genes is sufficient to induce sac-like outgrowths on petals in a heterologous host. We propose a model in which KNOX gene expression during early petal-spur development promotes and maintains further morphogenetic potential of the petal, as previously described for KNOX gene function in compound leaf development. These data indicate that petal spurs could have evolved by changes in regulatory gene expression that cause rapid and potentially saltational phenotypic modifications. Given the morphological similarity of spur ontogeny in distantly related taxa, changes in KNOX gene expression patterns could be a shared feature of spur development in angiosperms.”
“Bones obtained from Mullet fish in the Red Sea were grafted with acrylic acid by radiation-induced polymerization and were used as natural sorbents in the removal of lead and cadmium ions which are considered as major pollutants in the wastewater. The removal efficiency of the adsorbent was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent dose.
“Purpose. Amblyopes do not reliably show relative afferent pupillary defects with full-field stimulation, but amblyopia has cortical involvement; hence, stimuli that engage cortex may be able to reveal pupil defects in amblyopes. Methods. Pupillary responses were acquired with a binocular
infrared pupillometer (RAPDx, Konan Medical USA, Irvine, CA) from 15 amblyopic subjects (anisometropic and small-angle strabismic) and 10 age-matched control subjects. Stimuli were a full-field white flash (330 cd/m(2)) or a small (4 degrees) annulus at one of three contrast levels (0.3, 0.6, and 1.8) on a dim background (6.2 cd/m(2)). Stimulus duration U0126 order was 100 milliseconds, and the interstimulus duration was 2000 milliseconds. Results. In all four stimulus conditions, the difference in percent contraction
amplitude for right versus left eye stimulation was more variable across amblyopes than across control subjects. Amblyopic eyes did not showa specific deficit for the full-field flash. However, the mid-contrast (0.6) annulus stimulus revealed a deficit in the amblyopic eye, whereas the size of the deficit did not correlate with the type or depth of the amblyopia. Conclusions. GSK3326595 molecular weight Targets of appropriate pattern, brightness, and contrast that select for cortical contributions to the pupil response may be useful for eliciting pupil defects in amblyopic patients. Pupil analysis in this population could prove useful for diagnostic or prognostic value, for example, to determine which amblyopes will respond PXD101 molecular weight best to treatment.”
“The past three decades have witnessed an explosion in information regarding the genetic mutations underlying predisposition to common malignancies. Discoveries are now being made regarding genomic variants associated with disease risk for, and outcome following, treatment for cancer. Responsible translation of these discoveries to medical practice requires attention to principles of
clinical utility as well as social and ethical aspects.”
“The need to study dynamic biologic processes in intact small-animal models of disease has stimulated the development of high-resolution nuclear imaging methods. These methods are capable of clarifying molecular interactions important in the onset and progression of disease, assessing the biologic relevance of drug candidates and potential imaging agents, and monitoring therapeutic effectiveness of pharmaceuticals serially within a single-model system. Single-photon-emitting radionuclides have many advantages in these applications, and SPECT can provide 3-dimensional spatial distributions of gamma- (and x-) ray-emitting radionuclide imaging agents or therapeutics. Furthermore, combining SPECT with CT in a SPECT/CT system can assist in defining the anatomic context of biochemical processes and improve the quantitative accuracy of the SPECT data.
29 mu M as regard to Doxorubicin (IC50 = 7.36 mu M). Concerning the antibacterial activity, compounds 3m and 3z exerted remarkable activity against the tested bacterial species compared to Ampicillin, whereas compound 6c showed good activity against only Gram positive species. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Recent evidence has suggested an association between microalbuminuria and ultrasound-diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with diabetes and
prediabetes However, few data are available on the occurrence of microalbuminuria in nondiabetic subjects with histologically proven NAFLD Y-27632 molecular weight We thus evaluated the relationships between microalbuminuria and liver histology in a hospital-based sample of 87 adults with biopsy-proven NAFLD from Turkey An albumin excretion rate less than 30 mg/d was considered within the reference range, whereas an albumin excretion rate from 30 to 300
mg/d was considered to indicate microalbuminuria Compared with those without microalbuminuria (n = 73), NAFLD patients with microalbuminuria (n = 14) had significantly higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance values (3 9 +/- 1 3 vs 5 8 +/- 3 7, P < 001) There were no differences in the prevalence of microalbuminuria in patients with definite nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, borderline nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and simple fatty liver In the entire study cohort, mean fibrosis scores were significantly higher in patients with microalbuminuria Bafilomycin A1 order than in those without (1 27 +/- 0.26 vs 0 80 +/- 0 11, P < 05) This difference persisted after adjustment for potential IWR-1-endo confounders These results indicate the presence of a significant association between the seventy of insulin resistance and microalbuminuria in patients with NAFLD In addition, microalbuminuria may identify NAFLD patients with higher fibrosis scores (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved”
“Phytocannabinoids are useful therapeutics for multiple applications including treatments
of constipation, malaria, rheumatism, alleviation of intraocular pressure, emesis, anxiety and some neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Consistent with these medicinal properties, extracted cannabinoids have recently gained much interest in research, and some are currently in advanced stages of clinical testing. Other constituents of Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant, however, remain relatively unexplored in vivo. These include cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Delta(9)-THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG).\n\nWe here determined pharmacokinetic profiles of the above phytocannabinoids after acute single-dose intraperitoneal and oral administration in mice and rats. The pharmacodynamic-pharmacokinetic relationship of CBD (120 mg/kg, ip and oral) was further assessed using a marble burying test in mice.
96; 95% CI, 0.75
to 1.24), in the IVT/combined IVT-IAT group, 47 of 77 (61%) men and 24 of 43 (56%) women (aRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.60), and in the IAT group, 142 of 185 (77%) men and 71 of 102 (70%) women (aRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.17). Mortality was not different between men and women in the antithrombotic treatment group (aRR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.16), the IVT/combined IVT-IAT group Nepicastat chemical structure (aRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.73), or in the IAT group (aRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.36). Insufficient recanalization after combined IVT-IAT or IAT was similar in men and women (23% versus 22%; aRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.46).\n\nConclusions-In patients with acute basilar artery occlusion, no significant gender differences for outcome and recanalization were observed, regardless of treatment modality. (Stroke. 2010; 41: 2693-2696.)”
“Background\n\nTubal sterilization by hysteroscopy involves inserting a foreign body in both fallopian tubes. Over a three-month Combretastatin A4 mouse period, the tubal lumen is occluded by tissue growth stimulated by the insert.
Tubal sterilization by hysteroscopy has advantages over laparoscopy or mini-laparotomy, including the avoidance of abdominal incisions and the convenience of performing the procedure in an office-based setting. Pain, an important determinant of procedure acceptability, can be a concern when tubal sterilization is performed in the office.\n\nObjectives\n\nTo review all randomized controlled trials that evaluated interventions to decrease pain during tubal sterilization by hysteroscopy.\n\nSearch methods\n\nFrom January to March 2011, GPCR Compound Library nmr we searched the computerized databases of MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, and CINAHL for relevant trials. We searched for current trials via Clinicaltrials.gov. We also examined the reference lists of pertinent articles and wrote to known investigators for information about other published or unpublished trials.\n\nSelection
criteria\n\nWe included all randomized controlled trials that evaluated pain management at the time of sterilization by hysteroscopy. The intervention could be compared to another intervention or placebo.\n\nData collection and analysis\n\nInitial data were extracted by one review author. A second review author verified all extracted data. Whenever possible, the analysis was conducted with all women randomized and in the original assigned groups. Data were analyzed using RevMan software. Pain was measured using either a 10-cm or 100-point visual analog scale (VAS). When pain was measured at multiple points during the procedure, the overall pain score was considered the primary treatment effect. If this was not measured, a summation of all pain scores for the procedure was considered to be the primary treatment effect. For continuous variables, the mean difference with 95% confidence interval was computed.\n\nMain results\n\nTwo trials met the inclusion criteria. The total number of participants was 167.
The important management topics are discussed in this review, and the use of enzyme-replacement therapy with recombinant human iduronate-2-sulfatase as a specific treatment for Hunter syndrome is presented. Pediatrics 2009; 124: e1228-e1239″
“Background: Evidence-based quality improvement in nursing homes relies heavily on administrative LY3023414 clinical trial data. Minimum Data Set (MDS) and Online
Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) are the 2 largest sources of national nursing home administrative data. Although clinical measures in each of the data systems have frequently and independently been used to measure nursing home performance, no study has systematically examined their relative reliability.\n\nObjectives: This study estimates the reliability of clinical measures between MDS and OSCAR data and discusses the utility of these databases in research.\n\nResearch Design: We analyzed 4 waves of national MDS and OSCAR data (1999-2002). A comparable group of 24 clinical indicators from both datasets was
selected for the reliability test. Spearman rank-order correlation analyses were used to measure the test-retest reliability relationships.\n\nResults: Across the 4 years, the majority of coefficients of clinical measures exhibit good reliability. There are 17 clinical measures (71% of the total measures) U0126 with correlation coefficients greater than 0.4, the minimally acceptable reliability threshold according to Morris. The highest correlation coefficients were associated with tube feeding at 0.883.\n\nConclusions: Our findings indicate that the target GSK3326595 price clinical measures in OSCAR and MDS arc generally consistent and reliable. However, researchers Should use OSCAR self-reported clinical measures to measure nursing home outcomes in place of corresponding MDS clinical measures with
caution because some indicators in the administrative data are more reliable than others.”
“Aims: The aim of this study was to compare demographics, clinical manifestations, associated systemic and ocular factors, severity and activity of patients with unilateral thyroid eye disease (U-TED) versus bilateral thyroid eye disease (B-TED). Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism and primary hypothyroidism seen in an endocrinology clinic were included from September 2003 to July 2006. Demographics, complete eye examination, severity score (NOSPECS, total eye score), and clinical activity score were recorded and compared in the B-TED and U-TED groups of patients. Results: From 851 patients with thyroid disorders, 303 (35.6%) had TED. Thirty-two patients (32/303, 10.56%) were found to have U-TED. Patients with U-TED (mean age 31.6 +/- 11.6 years) were significantly younger than patients with B-TED (mean age 37.7 +/- 14.7 years). Monovariate analysis (Chi-square and independent sample t-test) showed a significantly higher severity score in B-TED (U-TED 4.09 +/- 4.05, B-TED: 6.7 +/- 6.3; P= 0.