The mixture was used for inoculation of LB (OD600 = 0 02) that wa

The mixture was used for inoculation of LB (OD600 = 0.02) that was incubated at 37°C with shaking. At OD600 = 0.4 a sample was taken for determination of bacterial count and determination of wild type to mutant ratio prior addition of H2O2 to a final concentration of 15 mM. The culture was again sampled for bacterial count and the ratio determination after incubation for an additional 30 min. The wild type to mutant ratio was determined by plating onto plates with or without chloramphenicol. Virulence of mutants in mice The optical density of overnight cultures of wild type and mutant in LB were adjusted and the cultures mixed in a 1:1 ratio. Groups of 5 C57BL/6 mice were

infected with 100 μl of diluted

PS-341 cost bacterial culture by intra-peritoneal (i.p.) challenge at a total final dose of 104 bacteria. The infection was allowed to proceed up to 6 days, unless the animals were clearly affected, in which case they were humanely killed. Euthanization was performed by cervical dislocation followed by removal and homogenization of the spleen. Serial dilutions of the homogenate as well as of the initial mixed culture used for inoculation were made and plated onto LB plates. Following the incubation of the plates at 37°C, the ratio of mutant to wild type was determined by randomly picking 100 colonies that were transferred to LB plates with or without chloramphenicol as previously described [75]. The competitive index was calculated as the mutant/wt ratio in the spleen versus the mutant/wt ratio of the mTOR inhibitor inoculum. Experiments were conducted with permission to John selleck chemicals llc Elmerdahl Olsen from the Danish Animal Experiments Inspectorate, license number 2009/561-1675. Statistical analysis

Comparison click here of competitive indexes based on bacteria obtained from spleen of mice and CFU of bacteria was done by paired T-test. Accession numbers The array design and the microarray datasets have been deposited with ArrayExpress database (accession numbers: A-MEXP-2343 and E-MTAB-1804, respectively). Acknowlegedments Tony Bønnelycke is thanked for skillful technical assistance. The study was supported by the EU-commission through the project BIOTRACER (contract 036272) under the 6th RTD Framework and the Danish Research Council Technology and Production through grant no. 274-07-0328. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Table S1: Ratio values between the intensities of two conditions as depicted below exhibiting a significant (P < 0.05) change between both conditions. (PDF 38 KB) Additional file 2: Table S2: Hubs or highly connected genes to culture conditions in the transcriptional network of S.Typhimurium, i.e. genes differentially transcribed under heat, oxidative, acid and/or osmotic stress and/or anaerobic condition, lag phase, exponential growth, stationary phase and immobilization.

A possible application of these SGSs is within the medical sector

A possible application of these SGSs is within the medical sector due to their enhanced solubility (compared PD-332991 to other PI3K inhibitor graphene derivatives) and potential for surface modifications for attachment of biomolecules and drugs. However, the interaction of SGSs with biological systems has yet to be investigated and is the basis of the work described herein. To date, much of the biological work regarding graphene has focused on assessing

the cytotoxicity, cell adhesion, proliferation, and antibacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) [5–8] as well as biodistribution, toxicology, and internalization of various suspensions of GO complexes. These include 125I and 188Re radioisotope-labeled GO [9, 10], PEGylated GO for cellular imaging and delivery of water-insoluble cancer drugs [11–13], and the imaging and treatment of brain, SBI-0206965 in vivo lung,

and breast xenograft tumors in mice through the use of photothermal light therapy from the absorption of near-infrared (NIR) light by PEGylated GO with fluorescent Cy7 probes [14]. Toxicity analysis (in vitro) of GO (prepared using chemical vapor deposition or the modified Hummers method [15]) on lung [16, 17] and neuronal [18] cell lines (A549 and PC12, respectively) has shown concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. The exact mechanism of cell death from GO remains uncertain although a slight increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from cells, generation of reactive oxygen species, and weak activation of a caspase-3-mediated apoptosis pathway have all been reported. These reports suggest GO cytotoxicity from either direct cellular membrane damage or activation of natural cellular suicide Protirelin mechanisms. Similarly, in vivo mouse toxicology studies have shown that GO nanoplatelets of diameters 10 to 700 nm apparently cause no acute toxicities at low doses [9, 10]. However,

at high doses (10 mg/kg), significant pathological changes such as granulomatous lesions, pulmonary edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and fibrosis were observed throughout the lungs. In light of the potential applications of graphene materials in drug delivery, imaging, and thermal therapy, but with limitations due to cytotoxicity of GO, we sought to investigate the in vitro interaction of our highly water-soluble SGS with liver cancer cells. Our initial studies using the standard 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), WST-1[2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (WST-1), and LDH colorimetric assays have shown that SGSs are non-toxic up to concentrations of 10 μg/ml. We also show that liver cancer cell lines (SNU449 and Hep3B) can internalize SGSs of diameters up to 5 μm, which in some cases are comparable to the size of the cells themselves.

Familial Cancer: 1–10 Watson MS, Greene CL (2001) Points

Familial Cancer: 1–10 Watson MS, Greene CL (2001) Points

to consider in preventing unfair discrimination based on genetic disease risk: a position statement of the American College of Medical Genetics. Genet Med 3(6):436–437PubMedCrossRef Watters v. White (2012). QCCA, vol 257. Quebec Court of Appeal Werner-Lin AV (2007) Danger zones: risk perceptions Gemcitabine clinical trial of young women from families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Fam Process 46(3):335–349PubMedCrossRef Wiseman M, Dancyger C, Michie S (2010) Communicating genetic risk information within families: a review. Familial Cancer 9(4):691–703PubMedCrossRef”
“Introduction In the context of the Human Genome Project, high expectations have been raised that the face of clinical care would be changed drastically by the short-term arrival of improved diagnostics and therapeutics developed by harnessing –omics platforms. Most notably at the moment, expectations have run high that efforts in the discovery and validation of biomarkers could provide new tools for rational drug development, INCB28060 for diagnostic interventions and for tailoring treatments based on individuals’ molecular make-up (“personalised medicine”) (Yap et

al. 2010). Despite their potential for clinical innovation, few new interventions drawing directly from these advances have in fact reached regulatory approval, and less still have been successfully adopted in the clinic DNA Damage inhibitor (Pisano 2006; Martin et al. 2009; Janssens and van Duijn 2010; Swinney and Anthony 2011; Anonymous 2012; Hoelder et al. 2012). Commentators have thus, in recent years, decried a situation where the biomedical field would be sitting on a gold mine of basic post-genomic research just waiting to be properly exploited into clinical innovation. A parallel, but more recent development has also contributed to shaping perceptions

that investments in biomedical research are increasingly disconnected from improvements in clinical practice and, especially, in therapeutic modalities. With a landmark 2004 report of the US Food and Drug Administration, biomedical actors worldwide started discussing the possibility of an impending crisis of innovation in the pharmaceutical industry sector (FDA 2004). Large pharmaceutical companies have recently had to engage in heavy personnel cuts, because of a historical conjuncture where the blockbuster products, usually drugs, which provided them with most of their revenues are falling off patent without having been gradually replaced with new such blockbusters (MacIlwain 2011; Mittra et al. 2011). Yet, advances in post-genomic platforms were expected to replenish the sources of innovation in pharmaceutical research and technology development (RTD).

28, 95% CI, 1 15–1 40, P = < 0 0001) Figure 6 Forest plot of 12-

28, 95% CI, 1.15–1.40, P = < 0.0001). Figure 6 Forest plot of 12-months survival. Symptom improvement Several studies reported on improvement of symptoms. In particular, 6 studies[13, 15, 23, 29, 44, 68] reported on abdominal pain

improvements favouring TCM approaches (RR 1.50, 95% CI, 1.09–2.07, P = 0.013, I244%, P = 0.11). Abdominal distension did not improve among TCM recipients in 5 reported trials8,18,24,39,50 (RR 1.26, 95% CI, 0.96–1.64, P = 0.09, I2 = 4%, P = 0.38). Fatigue significantly improved in 4 reported trials8,18,24,39, (RR 1.54, 95% CI, 1.17–2.01, P = 0.001, I2 = 0%, P = 0.87), Nirogacestat and appetite improved in 4 reported trials8,18,24,39, (RR 1.53, 95% CI, 1.14–2.05, P = 0.004, I2 = 0%, P = 0.45). Optimal Information Size (OIS) Almost all trials included in our analysis were small. We applied OIS based on the event rate in the intervention

and control arms for the PR outcome. We found an event rate of 0.42 in the intervention arms and an event rate of 0.33 in the control arms. When applying 80% power and a two-tailed 5% alpha, we identify that we require at least 906 participants in our ISRIB solubility dmso meta-analysis. Publication bias We assessed publication bias visually with a funnel plot and applied several statistical tests to determine the likelihood of publication bias. We found no vidence when applying the Begg-Mazumdar test (P = 0.14), Egger’s test (P = 0.80) or Horbold-Egger’s test (P = 0.89). We also imputed the number of studies that were likely missing, but the resulting Oligomycin A order number was unconcerning (n = 2) and was unlikely to change the effect estimate. Discussion We found consistent effects of traditional Chinese medicines when combined with TACE versus

TACE alone. The majority of studies included in our analysis were small or of moderate size and none can provide definitive answers on treatment options, although Y-27632 mw compelling results related to bufotoxin, astragalus and products containing ginseng, astragalus and mylabris warrant further examination. Our study also highlights the utility that searching in non-English languages may have on identifying potentially useful new interventions for common diseases. While our study finds compelling results, there is also reason for caution, given the poor reporting of clinical trials in China. Only independently conducted research from high-quality research teams will strengthen the inference of effectiveness. Strengths of our study include our extensive searches of literature in both English and in Chinese languages, and using Chinese language databases for our search. Two of us (PW, JL) understand and read Mandarin and Cantonese, along with English, thus allowing searches across several languages. We applied a broad criteria for pooling studies. We included any TCM formulation and then conducted a meta-regression analysis to determine if specific preparation yielded differing effects over the broad group, and in several cases did.

Indeed, athletes are mainly vulnerable to substance use, and abus

Indeed, athletes are mainly vulnerable to substance use, and abuse, in situations where much depends on sporting success; however, the use of LY294002 clinical trial ergogenic supplements is currently an accepted practice also among the “recreational” athletes and such practice is favored by an aggressive market, mainly expressed trough dedicated websites. Actually, it has been estimated that over 30 thousand different products referred to as “nutritional supplements” are commercially available [18].

Over the last years, this business have been considerably enlarging for the introduction of the so called “natural” or herbal products including those with hormonal effects (ecdysteroids, phytoestrogens, phytosterols and tribulus terrestris). These products have been quickly spreading all over the western world mainly

through the network, even though they still remain less known in respect to the traditional supplements, as our investigation highlighted. Undoubtedly, “natural” products are more appealing than the chemical ones because of the common misconception that what is natural is also harmless. Actually, many athletes trust in these products that promise effects comparable to those of Selleck CB-5083 steroids hormones or growth hormone, without the side effects of those prohibited substances. However, most of the users do not know that the ergogenic gains advertised for most of the nutritional supplements, including the natural ones, are often not based on scientific evidence and the possible risks for health deriving from their mid-term and long-term consumption are still not known. The notable finding of this study is the evidence of highly significant alteration of sexual hormone levels in habitual users of plant-derived nutritional supplements. Although these biochemical alterations were not associated with signs or symptoms of disease at the moment of the study, it cannot be excluded that, in the mid/long-term, these subjects would suffer of health

problems secondary to chronic exposure to heavily altered hormonal levels. Mechanisms Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase at the basis of these alterations are not known and the exact consequences are not predictable. However, it is known that hyperestrogenism may cause significant medical problems in both males and females. In particular, hyperestrogenism has been related to gynecomastia, hypogonadism, reduced fertility in men, macromastia, enlarged uterus and menstrual irregularities in women [19]. In addition, hyperestrogenism represents a major risk factor for the rare male breast cancer [20, 21]. In our study, hyperestrogenism was observed in athletes who consumed high dosage of soy protein, the main food source of phytoestrogens.

Environmental mycobacteria or MOTT include a large number of spec

Environmental mycobacteria or MOTT include a large number of species that can cause serious illnesses in

humans, particularly in immunocompromised patients [27]. For example, Mycobacterium interjectum has been identified as a causative agent of cervical lymphadenitis in children [28], and of cutaneous infections in immunosuppressed patients [29]. M. xenopi may cause pulmonary disease in humans [30], and M. scrofulaceum may cause cutaneous infections and lymphadenitis [27]. In humans, risk factors for MOTT infections include immunosuppression, contaminated water and aerosol exposure, and short or old age [27–29]. MOTT are widely distributed in the environment, particularly BIIB057 cell line in wet soil, marshland, streams, rivers and estuaries, but each species shows different preferences [31]. Because of its habitat characteristics, extension and their sizeable wild and domestic animal populations, Doñana National Park (DNP) in Southern Spain has been proposed as a good natural laboratory for studying wildlife mycobacteriosis [21, 32]. Molecular typing of M. bovis isolates for the period 1998-2003

showed that wildlife species in DNP were infected only with those M. bovis typing patterns (TPs) that were more prevalent in local cattle. Furthermore, the results were suggestive of micro-evolutionary events in the local M. bovis population [32]. In the same period, M. bovis selleck chemicals llc infection prevalence in DNP was 33% in European Selleckchem BI 10773 wild boar (Sus scrofa), 21% in red deer (Cervus elaphus), and 26% in fallow deer (Dama dama) [32]. In a more recent study, we confirmed infection with M. bovis in 52% wild boar, 27%

red deer and 18% fallow deer from DNP in 2006-2007, and evidenced that M. bovis prevalence decreased from North to South in wild boar and red deer, whereas no clear spatial pattern was observed for fallow Abiraterone molecular weight deer [21]. Three wild ungulates coexist in DNP, wild boar, fallow deer and red deer, along with domestic cattle subjected to bTB eradication programs. We included the wild species as our study models as all are highly susceptible to bTB and are known to show high prevalence in the area [21]. In addition, their different ecology and behavior peculiarities [33] can play a role in the epidemiology of mycobacteria, for example, variations in sociability or gregariousness, and scavenging habits. In addition, different habitats could provide variable environmental suitability for M. bovis persistence [6, 34]. In this sense, scrublands and woodlands are preferably used by red deer and wild boar compared with fallow deer [35–37]. In this study we used molecular epidemiological techniques to establish the extent of M. bovis strain richness and other environmental mycobacterial species in isolates collected in wildlife and cattle from the DNP, so as the association with social, spatial and environmental factors in this multi-host and multi-pathogen situation.

J Appl Phys 2013,113(024308):1–6 21 Belfiore LA, Floren ML, Pau

J Appl Phys 2013,113(024308):1–6. 21. Belfiore LA, Floren ML, Paulino AT, Belfiore CJ: Stress-sensitive tissue regeneration in viscoelastic biomaterials subjected to modulated tensile strain. Biophys Chem 2011, 158:1–8.CrossRef 22. Coulombe

PA, Wong P: Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments revealed as dynamic and multipurpose scaffolds. Nat Cell Biol 2004, 6:699–706.CrossRef 23. Drozdov AD: Viscoelastic Structures: Mechanics of Growth and Aging. San Diego, Dasatinib ic50 CA, the United States: Academic Press; 1998. 24. Tan SCW, Pan WX, Ma G, Cai N, Leong KW, Liao K: Viscoelastic behaviour of human mesenchymal stem cells. BMC Cell Biol 2008, 9:40–40.CrossRef 25. Rico F, Picas L, Colom A, Buzhynskyy N, Scheuring S: The mechanics of membrane proteins is a signature of biological

function. Soft: Matter; 2013. 26. VE-821 datasheet Rayaprolu V, Manning BM, Douglas T, Bothner B: Virus particles as active nanomaterials that can rapidly change their viscoelastic properties in response to dilute solutions. Soft Matter 2010, 6:5286–5288.CrossRef 27. Jang D, Meza LR, Greer F, Greer Ulixertinib JR: Fabrication and deformation of three-dimensional hollow ceramic nanostructures. Nat Mater 2013, 12:893–898.CrossRef 28. Schaedler TA, Jacobsen AJ, Torrents A, Sorensen AE, Lian J, Greer JR, Valdevit L, Carter WB: Ultralight metallic microlattices. Science 2011, 334:962–965.CrossRef 29. Bawolin NK, Chen XB, Zhang WJ: A method for modeling time-dependant mechanical properties of tissue scaffolds. 2007 IEEE International

OSBPL9 Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Vols I-V, IEEE Conference Proceedings, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China 2007, 1423–1427.CrossRef 30. Leung LH, Naguib HE: Characterization of the viscoelastic properties of poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-hydroxyapatite microcomposite and nanocomposite scaffolds. Polym Eng Sci 2012, 52:1649–1660.CrossRef 31. Nemoto N, Schrag JL, Ferry JD, Fulton RW: Infinite-dilution viscoelastic properties of tobacco mosaic-virus. Biopolymers 1975, 14:409–417.CrossRef 32. Graf C, Kramer H, Deggelmann M, Hagenbuchle M, Johner C, Martin C, Weber R: Rheological properties of suspensions of interacting rodlike Fd-virus particles. J Chem Phys 1993, 98:4920–4928.CrossRef 33. Huang F, Rotstein R, Fraden S, Kasza KE, Flynn NT: Phase behavior and rheology of attractive rod-like particles. Soft Matter 2009, 5:2766–2771.CrossRef 34. Schmidt FG, Hinner B, Sackmann E, Tang JX: Viscoelastic properties of semiflexible filamentous bacteriophage fd. Phys Rev E 2000, 62:5509–5517.CrossRef 35. Lakes RS: Viscoelastic measurement techniques. Rev Sci Instrum 2004, 75:797–810.CrossRef 36. Wahl KJ, Stepnowski SV, Unertl WN: Viscoelastic effects in nanometer-scale contacts under shear. Tribol Lett 1998, 5:103–107.CrossRef 37. MacKintosh FC, Schmidt CF: Microrheology. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 1999, 4:300–307.CrossRef 38.

The relation between volume fraction and mass fraction is as foll

The relation between volume fraction and mass fraction is as follows: (6) where ρ f and ρ np are solvent density and NP density, respectively. Using Equation 5, one can obtain the SHC of the nanofluid (c p,nf) at any mass fraction (α’) from the measured SHC of the nanofluid (c p,m) at a certain mass fraction (α) for a given NP size. The predictions selleck screening library using Equation 5 for the SHCs of the nanofluids at

various concentrations having 13-nm alumina NPs (red solid line) and 90-nm alumina NPs (blue dash line) based on the measured SHCs at 4.6 vol.%, along with the experimental results, are also shown in Figure 5. As Figure 5 shows, the predictions from the proposed model agree well with the experimental results. The large difference between the predictions of Equations 5 and 1 is from the result of the nanolayer effect on the SHC. This could be better understood by looking at the third term in the numerator of Equation 4. Since the weight of nanolayers (W layer ’) increases as check details particle concentration increases, it results in a further reduced SHC, provided that the nanolayer has a lower SHC than that of molten salt. Furthermore, the increase of SHC with increasing particle size is also

a result of the nanolayer effect. For a given NP concentration, the nanolayer effect increases as particle size reduces since the number of particle increases with reducing particle size. Thus, one observes a decreased SHC as particle size reduces, and however particle concentration increases because of the augmentation of the nanolayer effect.

Conclusions In conclusion, we have explored the SHC of the molten salt-based alumina nanofluid. The NP size-dependent SHC in the nanofluids had never been reported before and cannot be explained by the current existing model. We found that the reduction of the SHC of nanofluid when NP size reduces is due to the nanolayer effect, since the nanolayer contribution increases as particle size reduces for a given volume fraction. A theoretical model taking into account the nanolayer effect on the SHC of nanofluid was proposed. The model supports the experimental results in contrast to the existing model. The findings from this study are advantageous for the evaluation of the application of nanofluids in thermal storage for solar-thermal power plants. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Dr. C-W Tu and Dr. S-K Wu of the Industrial Technology Research Institute and Prof. Chuanhua Duan of Boston University for the helpful discussion about the heat capacity of the nanofluid. The authors would also like to acknowledge the Green Energy and Environmental Laboratory of the Industrial Technology Research Institute for the use of their equipment for the heat capacity measurement. The funding support for this study is from the National Science Council of Taiwan (Grant no. NSC 101-2623-E-009 -001-ET). References 1. Choi SUS: Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Fluids with Nanoparticles.

The secretor status of the individuals was determined based on th

The secretor status of the individuals was determined based on the presence of Lewis a and Lewis b antigens

by using monoclonal antisera (Sanquin, the Netherlands) and by genotyping of the FUT2 gene as LEE011 in vitro described in [8]. Volunteers with non-secretor phenotype (n = 15) were dismissed from further studies, resulting in a study group of 64 individuals (57 female and 7 male; age range 31–61 years). The demographic and blood group distribution of the volunteers is presented in Figure 1). Microbiota profiling by %G + C, SCFA and flow cytometry analysis The genomic DNA in microbe samples was profiled using the %G + C-profiling technique allowing the identification of microbial clusters or subsets in samples according to their genomic G + C contents [26]. In brief, the method is based on the molecular weight difference between A-T and G-C linkages in DNA double helix, achieved by A-T binding Selleck AZD1080 dye bis-benzimidazole, enabling the separation of DNA strands with different AT/GC ratios by ultracentrifugation, which are then visualized using UV light. Samples with a low genomic DNA yield (<20 μg/g fecal material) were excluded from the analysis and the %G + C-profiling selleck chemicals was performed for 46 samples (14 representing A, 16 O, 8 B and 8 AB blood group). The same subset of faecal samples was further analyzed using SCFA and

flow cytometric analyses as follows. The analysis of SCFA and lactic acid was essentially performed as described 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase by Fava et al. [27], using gas chromatography to establish the concentration of SCFAs acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and 2-methylbutyric acids, as well as lactic acid. The total numbers of bacteria in the samples were determined using a flow cytometric FACSCalibur system (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA) as previously described in [28]. For the method, the samples were fixed with 37% formaldehyde to obtain final concentration of 4% and the samples were stained with a fluorescent nucleic acid binding

dye, SYTO 24 (Molecular Probes, The Netherlands). PCR-DGGE analysis An extended sample set consisting of faecal samples from 21 blood group A, 19 O, 13 B and 11 AB individuals was analyzed using PCR-DGGE targeting the dominant eubacteria (UNIV) and specific bacterial groups, namely Eubacterium rectale – Clostridium coccoides group (EREC); Clostridium leptum group (CLEPT); Bacteroides fragilis group (BFRA); Bifidobacterium spp. (BIF) and Lactobacillus spp. (LACT). The PCR-DGGE analysis was performed as described by [8], with bacterial group specific modifications. Briefly, DNA from 0.3 g of faecal material was extracted using the FASTDNA® SPIN KIT FOR SOIL (Qbiogene) and the quality of the DNA was determined using NanoDrop as described above.

J Biol Chem 2002, 277:46408–46414 PubMedCrossRef 28 Aggarwal BB,

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induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells involving p16 INK4A re-expression related to UHRF1 and DNMT1 down-regulation. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2013, 32:30.PubMedCrossRef 33. Williams RT, Yu AL, Diccianni MB, Theodorakis EA, Batova A: Renal cancer-selective Englerin A induces multiple mechanisms of cell death and autophagy. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2013,32(1):57.PubMedCrossRef 34. Baldwin EL, Osheroff N: Etoposide, topoisomerase II and cancer. Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents 2005, 5:363–372.PubMedCrossRef 35. Zheng J: Energy metabolism of cancer: Glycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation BAY 11-7082 supplier (Review). Oncology Letters 2012, 4:1151–1157.PubMed 36. Lunt SY, Vander Heiden MG: Aerobic Glycolysis: Meeting the Metabolic Requirements of Cell Proliferation. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2011, 27:441–464.PubMedCrossRef 37.

Rastogi S, Banerjee S, Chellappan S, Simon GR: Glut-1 antibodies induce GPX6 growth arrest and apoptosis in human cancer cell lines. Cancer Lett 2007, 257:244–251.PubMedCrossRef 38. Icard P, Lincet H: A global view of the biochemical pathways involved in the regulation of the metabolism of cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1826, 2012:423–433. 39. Fantin VR, St-Pierre J, Leder P: Attenuation of LDH-A expression uncovers a link between glycolysis, mitochondrial physiology, and tumor maintenance. Cancer Cell 2006, 9:425–434.PubMedCrossRef 40. Le A, Cooper CR, Gouw AM, Dinavahi R, Maitra A, Deck LM, Royer RE, Vander Jagt DL, Semenza GL, Dang CV: Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase A induces oxidative stress and inhibits tumor progression. PNAS 2010, 107:2037–2042.PubMedCrossRef 41. Israël M, Schwartz L: The metabolic advantage of tumor cells. Mol Cancer 2011, 10:70.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.