StatisticsData were tested for normality with Shapiro-Wilk test, expressed as median (interquartile range) or mean �� standard deviation, and analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Student, ��2, or Fisher test, as appropriate. Spearman (��) correlation was also applied. Correlations selleck Vismodegib were corrected adjusting for the study group (ARDS or control), or infants’ weight and age, using partial correlation technique : to do so, variables not normally distributed were previously subjected to Log-transformation. Statistics was performed using SPSS 15.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and P values < 0.05 were considered to be significant.ResultssPLA2 and other assays in BALFWestern blotting (Figure (Figure1)1) showed high concentrations of sPLA2-IIA and -X in 100% of ARDS patients, while high amounts of sPLA2-V and sPLA2-IB were detected in 87% and 75% of cases, respectively.
Lower amount of sPLA2-IIA, -V, and -X were also observed in 64%, 50%, and 78% of controls, respectively. sPLA2-IB was nearly absent in control BALFs.Figure 1Illustrative findings of western blotting. Results are shown for two samples of each group, as representative. Four isotypes are expressed and secreted in BALF of ARDS infants; ��-actinin is used as control. Lower amounts of sPLA2-IIA, -V, and …Significant differences exist between cases and controls in terms of sPLA2 activity, phospholipids, TNF��, FFA (Figure (Figure2).2). TNF�� (814 (506-2,499) vs. 287 (111-1,315) pg/mL; P = 0.04), sPLA2 activity (430 (253-600) vs. 149 (61-387) IU/mL; P = 0.01), and FFA (4.3 (2.8-8.6) vs. 2 (0.8-4.6) ��M; P = 0.
026) are higher in ELF of ARDS patients than in controls. sPLA2/SP-A ratio is also higher in ARDS patients, although it does not reach significance (22 �� 30 vs. 11.3 Carfilzomib �� 6 IU/ng; P = 0.29). Conversely, the total amount of phospholipids is lower in ELF of ARDS patients than in controls (76.5 (54-100) vs. 1,094 (536-2,907) ��g/mL; P = 0.0001). Total ELF proteins were higher in ARDS patients (22 (10-29.6) mg/mL) than in controls (5.9 (4.3-25.3); P = 0.013).Figure 2sPLA2 and molecules related to its activity or expression in epithelial lining fluids. Pooled data from cases and controls. TNF�� (Panel A; *P = 0.04), sPLA2 total activity (Panel B; ��P = 0.01), FFA (Panel C; #P = 0.026) and total phospholipids …No significant differences were found between direct and indirect ARDS in terms of ELF TNF�� (800 (500-3,220) vs. 828 (462-2,203) pg/mL; P = 0.070), sPLA2 (323 (243-608) vs. 482 (261-580) IU/mL; P = 0.970), FFA (3.3 (1.6-8.8) vs. 4.8 (3.8-8.6) mM; P = 0.4), total phospholipids (92.5 (62-120.5) vs. 76.5 (45-82) ��g/mL; P = 0.413), and total proteins (25 (13-65.6) vs. 15 (10-29) mg/mL; P = 0.288).