Key gaps in our understanding include the role of spatial memory in foraging, how (and at what stage) frugivores make the fine distinctions between fruits of differing nutrient contents that they appear capable of, the role of diet learning through linking post-ingestive feedback to pre-ingestive sensory cues, and the plant traits that influence seed fate during the processing of fruits. The efficiency of frugivory and seed dispersal in novel JNK-IN-8 datasheet landscapes may not necessarily limit plant biomass,
but it certainly limits plant diversity. Mitigation measures will require a better understanding of all the processes involved. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain) is one of the most common injuries among preterm infants and term infants with birth complications. Both populations show cognitive/behavioral deficits, including impairments in sensory, learning/memory, and attention domains. Clinical data suggests a sex difference in HI outcomes, with males exhibiting more severe cognitive/behavioral deficits relative to matched females. Our laboratory has also reported more severe behavioral deficits among male rats with induced HI relative buy GW786034 to females with comparable injury (Hill et al., 2011a,b). The current study initially
examined published clinical studies from the past 20 years where long-term IQ outcome scores for matched groups of male and female premature infants were reported separately (IQ being the most common outcome measure). A meta-analysis revealed a female “advantage,” Natural Product Library high throughput as indicated by significantly better scores on performance and full scale IQ (but not verbal IQ) for premature females. We then utilized a rodent model of neonatal HI injury to assess sham and postnatal day 7 (P7) HI male and female rats on a battery of behavioral tasks. Results showed expected deficits in HI male rats, but also showed task-dependent sex differences, with HI males having significantly larger deficits than HI females on some tasks but equivalent deficits on other tasks. In contrast to
behavioral results, post mortem neuropathology associated with HI was comparable across sex. These findings suggest: 1) neonatal female “protection” in some behavioral domains, as indexed by superior outcome following early injury relative to males; and 2) female protection may entail sex-specific plasticity or compensation, rather than a reduction in gross neuropathology. Further exploration of the mechanisms underlying this sex effect could aid in neuroprotection efforts for at-risk neonates in general, and males in particular. Moreover, our current report of comparable anatomical damage coupled with differences in cognitive outcomes (by sex) provides a framework for future studies to examine neural mechanisms underlying sex differences in cognition and behavior in general. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Consistent with an a priori hypothesis, OT and social information interact significantly to affect the behavior of individuals
with a proself value orientation: after prior contact with the game partner, OT enhances cooperative behavior, whereas in anonymous conditions, it exacerbates their intrinsic self-interested behavior. These effects of OT do not hold for individuals with a prosocial value orientation, whose cooperation levels appear to be more influenced by prior contact with the game partner. Follow-up hypotheses for why prosocial and proself individuals respond differently to exogenous OT were developed.”
“Eukaryotic cells respond BAY 73-4506 inhibitor to DNA damage by activating damage checkpoint pathways, which arrest cell cycle progression and induce gene expression. We isolated a full-length cDNA encoding
a 49-kDa protein from Leishmania major, which exhibited significant deduced amino acid sequence homology AG-120 clinical trial with the annotated Leishmania sp. DNA damage-inducible (Ddi1-like) protein, as well as with the Ddi1 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the previously described Ddi1 protein, the protein from L. major displays three domains: (1) an NH2-terminal ubiquitin like; (2) a COOH terminal ubiquitin-associated; (3) a retroviral aspartyl proteinase, containing the typical D[S/T]G signature. The function of the L. major Ddi1-like recombinant protein was investigated after expression in baculovirus/insect cells and biochemical analysis, revealing preferential substrate selectivity for aspartyl proteinase A(2) family substrates, with optimal activity in acidic conditions. The proteolytic activity was inhibited by aspartyl proteinase inhibitors. Molecular modeling of the retroviral domain of the Ddi1-like Leishmania protein revealed a dimer structure that contained a double Asp-Ser-Gly-Ala amino acid sequence motif, in an almost identical CDK inhibitor review geometry to the exhibited by the homologous retroviral aspartyl protease domain of yeast Ddi1 protein. Our results indicate that the isolated Ddi1-like protein is a functional aspartyl proteinase
in L. major, opening possibility to be considered as a potential target for novel antiparasitic drugs.”
“Background: Anal sex is an important yet little studied HIV risk behavior for women.\n\nMethods: Using information collected on recent sexual encounters, we examined the influence of sex partner and relationship characteristics on the likelihood of engaging in anal sex among women with a high risk of HIV infection.\n\nResults: Anal sex was nearly 3 times more common among actively bisexual women (OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 2.17-4.03). Women were more likely to have anal sex with partners who injected drugs (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.44-3.75), were not heterosexual (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.18-2.90), and with whom they exchanged money or drugs for sex (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.10-2.90).
A large body of evidence from both human and animal studies now points to a relationship between circadian disorders and altered metabolic response, suggesting that circadian and metabolic regulatory networks are tightly connected. After a review of the current understanding of the molecular circadian core clock, we will discuss the hypothesis that clock genes themselves
link the core molecular clock and metabolic regulatory Lazertinib molecular weight networks. We propose that the nuclear receptor and core clock component Rev-erb-alpha behaves as a gatekeeper to timely coordinate the circadian metabolic response.”
“Trypanosomes are parasites that cycle between the insect host (procyclic form) and mammalian host (bloodstream form). These parasites lack conventional transcription regulation, including factors that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, they possess a stress response mechanism, the spliced leader RNA silencing (SLS) pathway. SLS elicits shutoff of spliced leader RNA (SL RNA) transcription by perturbing the binding of the transcription factor tSNAP42 to its cognate promoter, thus eliminating trans-splicing of all mRNAs. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in procyclic trypanosomes elicits changes in the transcriptome similar to those induced by conventional UPR found in other eukaryotes. The mechanism of
up-regulation under ER stress is dependent on differential stabilization of mRNAs. The transcriptome
changes are accompanied by ER dilation and elevation in the ER chaperone, BiP. selleck inhibitor Prolonged ER stress induces SLS pathway. RNAi silencing of SEC63, Buparlisib a factor that participates in protein translocation across the ER membrane, or SEC61, the translocation channel, also induces SLS. Silencing of these genes or prolonged ER stress led to programmed cell death (PCD), evident by exposure of phosphatidyl serine, DNA laddering, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as typical morphological changes observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ER stress response is also induced in the bloodstream form and if the stress persists it leads to SLS. We propose that prolonged ER stress induces SLS, which serves as a unique death pathway, replacing the conventional caspase-mediated PCD observed in higher eukaryotes.”
“Patient-reported outcomes are important for clinical practice and research, and should reflect what patients perceive as important. The objective of this study was to develop and preliminarily validate a brief, patient-derived, disease-specific tool, the pancreatic cancer disease impact (PACADI) score.\n\nThe development was performed in two phases. Forty-one patients with confirmed pancreatic cancer (PC) selected dimensions of health related to the impact of the disease.
The relative weights and the scores from the NRS were used to compute the PACADI score (range 0 to 10). The patients also completed Edmonton Symptom Assessment
System (ESAS) and EQ-5D.\n\nDimensions reported by more than 20 % of the patients were included in the PACADI score (relative weights in parenthesis): pain/discomfort (0.16), fatigue (0.16), anxiety (0.15), bowel/digestive MLN4924 mouse problems (0.14), loss of appetite (0.13), dry mouth (0.11), itchiness (0.08), and nausea (0.07). The PACADI score in the 80 PC patients had a mean (SD) value of 3.26 (2.06) (95 % CI 2.80, 3.71), was moderately to strongly correlated to ESAS sense of well-being (r = 0.69) and EQ-5D (r = -0.52), and discriminated significantly between patients with and without PC.\n\nThe PACADI score is a new eight-item, patient-derived, disease-specific measure. Preliminary validation regarding construct validity and discrimination encourages further validation in independent patient samples.”
“Background: We have recently shown that intranasal administration of mouse [D-Leu-4]-OB3 reconstituted in Intravail (R) to male Swiss Webster mice resulted in significantly higher bioavailability than commonly used injections methods of delivery. The absorption pro. le associated with intranasal
delivery of mouse [D-Leu-4]-OB3 showed an early peak representing absorption across the nasal mucosa, and a later peak suggesting GS-9973 ic50 a gastrointestinal site of uptake.\n\nAim and Methods: In the present study, we examined the effects of orally administered (by gavage) mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 on energy balance, glycaemic control and serum osteocalcin levels
in male C57BL/6J wild-type and ob/ob mice allowed food and water ad libitum or calorie restricted by 40% of normal intake.\n\nResults: In wild-type mice fed ad libitum, oral delivery of mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 reduced body weight gain, food intake and serum glucose, by 4.4, 6.8 and 28.2% respectively. Serum osteocalcin levels and water intake were essentially AC220 research buy the same in control and treated wild-type mice. In ob/ob mice fed ad libitum, mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 reduced body weight gain, food intake, water intake and serum glucose by 11.6, 16.5, 22.4 and 24.4% respectively. Serum osteocalcin in ob/ob mice treated with mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 was elevated by 62% over controls. Calorie restriction alone caused significant weight loss in both wild-type (9.0%) and ob/ob (4.8%) mice, and mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 did not further enhance this weight loss. As expected, serum glucose levels in wild-type and ob/ob mice were significantly reduced by calorie restriction alone. Mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 further reduced serum glucose in wild-type mice and normalized levels in ob/ob mice. Calorie restriction alone reduced serum osteocalcin levels by 44.2% in wild-type mice and by 19.1% in ob/ob mice. Mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 prevented this decrease in groups of mice.
\n\nRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In this study, we determined the immunogenicity of human fetal pancreatic tissue obtained from the first trimester of gestation in a humanized mouse model. A microarray study of immunoregulatory gene expression in first- and second-trimester human fetal pancreas was also undertaken.\n\nRESULTS- The analysis of transplanted human fetal pancreata revealed a significantly Apoptosis inhibitor decreased immunogenicity of the first-trimester tissue. The first-trimester grafts showed
only limited cellular infiltration and contained numerous insulin-positive cells, whereas second-trimester tissue was completely infiltrated and rejected. Furthermore an analysis of immunoregulatory genes expressed in first- and second-trimester human fetal pancreas by microarray demonstrated the upregulation of several key immunoregulatory genes in the second-trimester tissue. This might account for the reduced immunogenicity of the younger tissue.\n\nCONCLUSIONS-Our Wnt inhibitor results provide the first indication that the use of first-trimester human fetal pancreas for transplantation might increase the survival of the grafts and might decrease the requirement for immunosuppressive drugs.”
“Background: Exposure to house dust mites (HDMs) aggravates the course of atopic dermatitis (AD) in patients sensitized to HDMs.\n\nObjectives: This study
investigated the Citarinostat efficacy and safety of subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy with the use of depigmented polymerized mite extract as an add-on therapy to basic (ie, topical and, as necessary, systemic) medication.\n\nMethods: Patients (n = 168) were recruited in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group phase III study conducted in Germany (21 sites), in adult patients
with AD aggravated by HDMs. The primary end points of the study were the assessments of the area under the curves of the total Severity Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score and of the use of basic medication during the 18-month treatment period. Post hoc subgroup analyses were also performed.\n\nResults: Overall efficacy analysis of the intention-to-treat and per-protocol study populations showed no statistically significant differences between the active treatment and placebo groups. However, the subgroup of patients with severe AD (SCORAD > 50) showed a statistically significant reduction of the median total SCORAD by 18% (P = .02) compared with placebo. The frequency of adverse reactions was similar in both groups, suggesting the safety of the active treatment.\n\nConclusion: Although subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy showed no statistically significant difference in the overall population of patients with AD, statistically significant reduction of the total SCORAD could be achieved in a subgroup of patients with severe AD. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012; 130:925-31.
BMR was not correlated with total NST capacity, but phenotypic correlation between
obligatory and regulatory NST was negative. This suggests possibility of substitution of obligatory NST to thermoregulation in a place of the regulatory NST. Then total thermoregulatory energy expenditures do not change. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Hyaluronan (H) is an ubiquitous high-molecular size glycosaminoglycan involved in many physiological functions. Evidences are numerous implying H in various pathological pathways, such as inflammation, cancer cardio-vascular diseases. CD44 is the principal membrane cell receptor of H. In inflammation, H has size-specific different biological activities. The high molecular weight H are anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive. Smaller H oligomers are angiogenic, inflammatory and immuno-stimulatory. H is strongly involved in the recruitment of leucocytes at the ICG-001 mouse MS-275 order site of inflammation (role of CD44). Data giving evidence for a role of H in allergic pathways and auto-immunity are scarce. H is implicated in pathogenetic process leading to atherosclerosis. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.”
“This study used shake
flask method to examine effects of pH, temperature, and duration of incubation on removal efficiency by studying physicochemical parameters and floc stability in degradation of pulp and paper mill effluent over 24 h using mixed cultures of bacteria and fungi. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design and response surface methodology were adopted to plan experiments and analyze the data, respectively. Quadratic models were developed based on high coefficient of determination (R(2)) obtained from analysis of variance (ANOVA) results. Optimal conditions yielded a decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD, 70%) and in total suspended solid (TSS, 53%) levels.”
“A series of tetrahydropyridopyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for neurotoxicity and peripheral analgesic activity
followed by assessment of antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic potential in two peripheral neuropathic pain models, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) and partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). Compounds (4b and 4d) exhibiting learn more promising efficacies in four behavioral assays of allodynia and hyperalgesia (spontaneous pain, tactile allodynia, cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia) were quantified for their ED50 values (15.12-65.10 mg/kg). Studies carried out to assess the underlying mechanism revealed that the compounds suppressed the inflammatory component of the neuropathic pain and prevented oxidative and nitrosative stress. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex molecules composed of monoclonal antibodies conjugated to potent cytotoxic agents through chemical linkers.
i.) -4.3 to 15.7) per cent; P = 0.258). Treatment with honey was probably more expensive and associated with more adverse events (relative risk 1.3 (95 per cent c.i. 1.1 to 1.6); P = 0.013). There were no significant differences between the groups for other outcomes.\n\nConclusion: Honey-impregnated dressings did not significantly improve venous ulcer healing at 12 weeks compared with usual care.”
“Objective To determine the ability of Coronary Artery Calcification Score (CACS) and carotid ultrasonography in detecting subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).\n\nMethods A set of 104 consecutive RA patients without history of cardiovascular (CV)
events were studied to determine CACS, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) CX-6258 and plaques. Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) modified according to the EULAR recommendations (mSCORE) was also assessed.\n\nResults The mean disease duration was 10.8years, 72.1% had rheumatoid factor and/or anti-CCP positivity and 16.4% extra-articular manifestations. Nine were excluded because they had type 2 diabetes mellitus or
chronic kidney disease. CV risk was categorised in the remaining 95 RA patients according to the mSCORE as follows: low (n=21), moderate (n=60) and high/very high risk (n=14). Most patients with low mSCORE (16/21; 76.2%) had normal CACS (zero), and none of them CACS>100. However, a high number of patients with carotid plaques was disclosed in the groups CBL0137 nmr with CACS 0 (23/40; 57.5%) or CACS 1-100 (29/38; 76.3%). 72 (75.8%) of the 95 patients fulfilled definitions for high/very
high CV as they had an mSCORE 5% or mSCORE <5% plus one of the following findings: severe carotid ultrasonography findings (cIMT>0.9mm see more and/or plaques) or CACS>100. A CACS>100 showed sensitivity similar to mSCORE (23.6% vs 19.4%). In contrast, the presence of severe carotid ultrasonography findings allowed identifying most patients who met definitions for high/very high CV risk (70/72; sensitivity 97.2% (95% CI 90.3 to 99.7)).\n\nConclusions Carotid ultrasonography is more sensitive than CACS for the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis in RA.”
“Synaptic plasticity, specifically long-term potentiation and long-term depression, is thought to be the underlying cellular Mechanism for learning and memory processes in the brain. About two decades ago a new concept was introduced, namely metaplasticity, which comprises changes that modify the properties of synaptic plasticity due to a priming or preconditioning event. While metaplasticity was initially defined and studied predominantly on a synaptic and cellular level, it soon became apparent that the term could also be very useful to describe plasticity changes on a more global level, including environmental stressors as priming events and altered behavior as outcome measures.
“The high mortality rates associated with candidemia episodes and the emergence of resistance to antifungal agents necessitate the monitoring of the susceptibility
of fungal isolates to antifungal treatments. The new, recently approved, species-specific clinical breakpoints (SS-CBPs)(M27-S4) for evaluating susceptibility require careful interpretation and comparison with the former proposals made using the M27-A3 breakpoints, both from CLSI. This study evaluated the susceptibility of the different species of Candida that were isolated from candidemias based on these two clinical breakpoints. Four hundred and twenty-two isolates were identified and, among them, C. parapsilosis comprised 46.68%, followed by C. albicans (35.78%), C. tropicalis (9.71%), C. glabrata (3.55%), C. lusitaniae (1.65%), C. guilliermondii (1.65%) and C. krusei (0.94%). In accordance with the MAPK inhibitor M27-A3 criteria, RepSox nmr 33 (7.81%) non-susceptible isolates were identified, of which 16 (3.79%) were resistant to antifungal agents. According to SS-CBPs, 80 (18.95%) isolates were non-susceptible, and 10 (2.36%) of these were drug resistant. When the total number of non-susceptible isolates was considered, the new SS-CBPs detected 2.4 times the number of isolates that were detected using the M27-A3 interpretative criteria. In conclusion, the detection of an elevated
number of non-susceptible species has highlighted the relevance of evaluating susceptibility
tests using new, species-specific clinical breakpoints (SS-CBPs), which could impact the profile of non-susceptible Candida spp. to antifungal agents that require continuous susceptibility monitoring.”
“The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 find more seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.”
“Malalcahuello ocaresi gen. n. & sp. n., from Chile, is described and compared with Campyloxenus pyrothorax Fairmaire & Germain, 1860.”
“Interleukin (IL)-21, which is secreted by activated CD4(+) T cells and NKT cells, has been found to be able to influence the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and have potent antitumor activity in animal models.
In addition, the high-throughput capacity of the platform PCI-32765 datasheet was tested using a dual-slide system that allowed rapid screening of the effects
of tretinoin and fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) on the pluripotency of mouse ES cells. This high-throughput platform is a powerful new tool for investigating cellular mechanisms involved in stem cell expansion and differentiation and provides the basis for rapid identification of signals and conditions that can be used to direct cellular responses. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;106: 106-118. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background: Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic (pANCA) and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) have been studied extensively in Western countries. We determined the prevalence of pANCA and ASCA in the mainland Chinese population and the ability of pANCA
and ASCA to discriminate between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD).\n\nMethods: Two hundred-six unrelated patients with IBD (UC, n = 152: CD, n = 54), 60 patients with other gastrointestinal diseases, and 80 healthy controls were included. selleck products Sera pANCA and ASCA titers were determined by a standardized indirect immunofluorescence technique.\n\nResults: The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive likelihood ratio of pANCA were calculated for differentiating UC from healthy controls (43.4%, 96.3%, 95.7%. 47.2%, and 11.7, respectively) and ASCA for differentiating CD from healthy controls and (46.3%, 96.3%, 89.3%, 72.6%. and 12.5, respectively). The combination of pANCA and ASCA did not result in greater diagnostic efficiency than either test alone. pANCA was more frequent selleck screening library in UC with extensive or severe phenotype than others. ASCA was associated with severe CD disease activity.\n\nConclusions:
pANCA and ASCA are useful in confirming the diagnosis of IBD and differentiating between UC and CD in an IBD cohort in central China. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The immune system can be adversely affected by a variety of extrinsic factors, including immunosuppressive drugs, exposure to harsh environmental conditions, hereditary disorders other than primary immunodeficiencies, and acquired metabolic disorders such as diabetic mellitus, with all of these resulting in conditions known as secondary immunodeficiencies. Perhaps the most well known secondary immunodeficiency is caused by HIV infection; however, the most prevalent cause of immunodeficiency worldwide is severe malnutrition, which affects as much as 50% of the population in some impoverished communities. The abnormalities of the immune system induced by secondary immunodeficiencies affect both the innate and the adaptive immunity, may be subtle, and are usually heterogeneous in their clinical manifestations.
Experimental results indicate that the proposed
method using only color achieves 99.9993 accuracy, 0.0160 FAR, and 0.0813 FRR. Computational time efficiency achieved is of 947.7 ms.”
“The greater prevalence of dry eye ON-01910 in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events,
which underlie dry eye.”
“Growing evidence suggests that interleukin-8 (IL-8) play pivotal roles in BIX 01294 price the pathogenesis of cancer through the modulation of tumour immune response or
enhanced angiogenesis. A single nucleotide polymorphism, -251A/T, has been identified in the promoter region of the IL-8 gene and has been shown Dibutyryl-cAMP to influence its production. Results from previous studies on the association of -251A/T polymorphism with different cancer types remained contradictory. To assess the effect of -251A/T of IL-8 on cancer susceptibility, we conducted a meta-analysis, up to May 2009, of 14,876 cases with different cancer types and 18,465 controls from 45 published case-control studies. Summary odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IL-8 polymorphism and cancer were estimated using fixed- and random-effects models when appropriate. The AA/AT genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma when compared with TT genotype (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.16-1.89). Moreover, significantly elevated risks were observed in ‘other cancers’, and also in African population when population is concerned. Interestingly, when stratified separately by population-based studies and hospital-based studies, significantly elevated risk was found among hospital-based studies (OR = 1.21, 95% CI, 1.07-1.37), whereas significantly decreased risk was found among population-based studies (OR = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.83-0.97). This meta-analysis shows that IL-8 -251A/T polymorphism may play a complex role in cancer development. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd.