The large size of the REGARDS cohort selleck Pazopanib allows us to split the participants into two samples a hypothesis generating sample to explore possible significant relationships, and a confirmatory sample to independently assess the associations found in the exploratory Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries analyses, reducing the likelihood of Type I error. We hypothesize that increased sunlight exposure is related to improved cardiovascular risk factor status in both exploratory and confirmatory samples of the REGARDS study. Methods Study participants REGARDS is a longitudinal study of United States participants aged 45 years and older. The REGARDS study was designed to investigate reasons underlying the higher rate of stroke mortality among blacks, compared with non Hispanic whites, and among residents in the Southeastern United States, compared with other US regions.
At baseline, 56% of the participants were residing in the stroke belt,with the remaining 44% Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries from the rest of the contiguous 48 US. 21% of the total participants were sampled from the stroke buckle. The cohort population at baseline was 42% African American 58% white and 45% male 55% female. Further details on the study are available elsewhere. The REGARDS study and the current analysis were approved by the Institutional Review Boards of participating institutions. Data collection At baseline, a telephone interview was conducted during which informed consent was obtained and the participants self reported demographic and behavioral factors, and medical history were recorded.
Participants were then visited Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in their homes by a trained health professional who collected blood pressure, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries height, weight, blood, urine, and conducted electrocardiograms, and obtained written informed consent. Blood and urine were sent to a central repository at the University of Vermont and ECG data were read at Wake Forest University. The examiner also left a residential history form to fill and mail. Assessment of sunlight exposure and temperature We used data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NLDAS 2 dataset to determine sunlight radiation and temperature. The NLDAS 2 dataset is based on model reanalysis data and remotely sensed and ground observations, and consists of a grid surface Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries with 14 km resolution over North America.
NLDAS 2 solar radiation that was assessed at one hour intervals was used to calculate a daily total referred to herein as daily insolation. For this study, we merged daily insolation and maximum air temperatures with data from REGARDS residential history form, which consists of locations where the participant had lived prior to enrollment into REGARDS, along with age selleck inhibitor when relocating. Each location the participant recorded was matched to a feature in the US Geological Surveys Geographic Names Information System using ArcGIS 9. 3.