SETTING: Vilnius University, Laser Research Centre, Vilnius, Lith

SETTING: Vilnius University, Laser Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania

METHODS: Femtosecond pulses in the deep UV range (205 nm)

were obtained by the generation of the fifth-harmonic of an amplified Yb:KGW laser system (fundamental output at 1027 see more nm). Coupled with galvanometric beam-scanning mirrors, this system allowed ablation shaping of transparent media, including poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), collagen, and ex vivo porcine corneas. The surfaces of ablated structures were characterized using a noncontact confocal optical profiler.

RESULTS: Spherical structures were successfully formed in all 3 materials tested. A 10 0 diopter refraction change in the cornea was produced in 180 seconds The resulting surface quality was significantly higher (roughness length >100 mu m versus approximately 6 mu m) in gelatin and ex vivo corneas than in PMMA

CONCLUSION: The solid-state femtosecond UV laser system seems an attractive alternative to the currently used ophthalmic argon-fluoride excimer laser system because of its small footprint, silent operation, and ability to generate femtosecond light pulses at Pfizer Licensed Compound Library solubility dmso both 1027 nm (suitable for flap creation) and 205 nm (corneal ablation).

Financial Disclosure: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2010; 36.1579-1587 (C) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS”
“The microstructure and magnetic viscosity of

bulk amorphous Nd60Fe20Al5Co10B5, prepared by suction casting the molten alloy into a copper mold under an argon atmosphere, have been investigated. The results show that clusters with size 3-5 nm are found to be embedded in the amorphous matrix of as-cast bulk amorphous Nd60Fe20Al5Co10B5 alloy. The Nd60Fe20Al5Co10B5 alloy shows hard magnetic behavior at room temperature, with an intrinsic coercivity of 360 kA/m and a remanence of 69.39 mT. The magnetic viscosity of bulk amorphous Nd60Fe20Al5Co10B5 has been investigated on the major hysteresis check details loop, and simple logarithmic time dependence is observed. A value for the fluctuation field of 8.24

kA/m is obtained. Analysis based on a Henkel plot is used to confirm the existence of magnetic interaction among clusters. The coercivity mechanism responsible for the hard magnetic behavior of bulk amorphous Nd60Fe20Al5Co10B5 alloy is also discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3573510]“
“Functioning nephron mass is a determinant of the graft function of kidney transplant recipients. The graft kidney volume and its weight have been reported to be surrogates of the nephron mass. To investigate the impact of the ratios of the surrogates to recipient body surface area (BSA) and body weight on the graft function within six months post-transplantation, we measured the graft kidney volume, using computed tomography with 3-dimensional reconstruction before transplantation, and measured the graft kidney weight during surgery.

Sanguinine, an even more powerful inhibitor of acetylcholinestera

Sanguinine, an even more powerful inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase than galanthamine, was also found in the leaves and bulbs of 22 ornamental varieties of Narcissus, which exhibited a high acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

“The nucleocapsid protein (NP) of hantavirus has been shown to be highly immunogenic in laboratory animals and humans, and it induces an early and long-lasting humoral immune response during hantavirus infection. In the present study, entire and three partially truncated open reading frames (ORF) WZB117 research buy of NP genes of Hantaan virus (HTNV) strain 76-118, a prototype of hantavirus, were amplified and then cloned in prokaryotic expression vectors. The recombinant whole NP and truncated NPs were expressed in Escherichia coli. In addition, their antigenic and biological activities were evaluated in an enzyme-linked Protease Inhibitor Library immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of a series of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Results showed that the expressed complete HTNV NP had a similar function as an authentic viral NP. The antigen sites on NP of hantavirus were mainly located

in the N-terminus, and the region at 1-37 amino acid might be one important antigenic domain.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of GreenLight HPS (TM) laser photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in patients with different prostate volumes.

Patients and Methods: Between July 2006 and February 2011, 207 consecutive patients were identified from a prospectively maintained urologic database. Based on preoperative prostate volume measured by transrectal ultrasonography, patients were stratified into two groups: 80 cc (group 1, n = 57) and < 80 cc (group 2, n = 150). Transurethral PVP was performed using a 120W GreenLight HPS side-firing laser system. American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS), quality-of-life (QoL) score, maximum flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual (PVR) volume were measured preoperatively and at CA4P cost 1 and 4 weeks and 3, 6, 12,

18, 24, and 36 months postoperatively.

Results: Among the preoperative parameters evaluated, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the incidence of preoperative urinary retention (1: 24.6%; 2: 7.3%), serum prostate-specific antigen level (1: 4.5 +/- 2.7; 2: 1.8 +/- 1.9 ng/mL), QoL (1: 4.2 +/- 1.1; 2: 4.7 +/- 0.9), and mean prostate volume (1: 118.1 +/- 37.9; 2: 48.5 +/- 15.5 cc), while AUASS, Qmax, and PVR were similar (P > 0.05) between groups. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in laser use (1: 22.8 +/- 13.3; 2: 10.4 +/- 6.4 minutes) and energy usage (1: 152.7 +/- 90.6; 2: 70.9 +/- 44.8 kJ) were also noted. Clinical outcomes (AUASS, QoL, Qmax, and PVR) showed immediate and stable improvement from baseline (P < 0.05) within each group, but no significant differences between the two groups were observed during the follow-up period (P > 0.05).

“Purpose of reviewThe incidence of obesity and its associa

“Purpose of reviewThe incidence of obesity and its associated comorbidities have significantly increased over the years with adverse health and financial consequences for society. Lifestyle changes are

OSI-744 concentration essential for the prevention and treatment of obesity but their benefit appears limited as inadequate and nonsustained weight loss results have been reported. Pharmacotherapy is frequently advocated as part of a weight loss strategy. In this review, we will discuss the antiobesity drugs with Food and Drug Administration approval and their cardiovascular implications.Recent findingsOrlistat (Xenical) remains the single monotherapy that has approval in Europe. Topiramate (Topamax) and phentermine have long been approved in the United States, whereas lorcaserin and the extended release combination of phentermine with topiramate have recently gained approval. The development of single peptides targeting gut hormones or other host signals related to obesity may represent promising therapeutic options.SummaryDespite the recent failures of a number of antiobesity drugs, the pharmacotherapy of obesity is progressing rapidly. Treating the

YM155 solubility dmso obese cardiovascular patient has proven challenging. Efficacy, safety and the sustainability of weight loss are key areas of focus in drug development strategies.”
“Six naturally occurring terpenoids were isolated from the hexane extract of rabbit-head wormwood Artemisia lagocephala (Fisch. ex Besser) DC. The terpenoids’ structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods as 3 beta-acetoxycycloartan-24-ozonide (1), 3 beta-acetoxycycloartan-24-al (2), 25,26,27-trisnor-3 beta-acetoxycycloartan-24-ol (3), 24,25,26,27-tetranor-3

beta-acetoxycycloartan-23-ol (4), and the previously known caryophyllene oxide (5) and (1R,4S)-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (6). (C) 2011 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

Stem cell transplantation is currently generating a great deal of interest in the treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) as the replacement selleck chemical of akinetic scar tissue by viable myocardium should improve cardiac function, impede progressive left ventricular remodeling, and revascularize ischemic areas. Substantial work in stem cell therapy for ischemic heart disease has recently been reported.

Recent findings

Stem cell populations have been expanding. Most recently, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been discovered that have the potential to revolutionize stem cell therapy. Many of the efforts in stem cell therapy for ischemic heart disease have been inconclusive and often contradicting. Transdifferentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes remains controversial. The therapeutic effect of the stem cell seems consistent with paracrine function rather than transdifferentiation, Systemic and micromilieu factors appear to dictate the fate of implanted stem cells.

(c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Environ Toxicol 29: 298-309, 201

(c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 298-309, 2014.”
“Objective: To determine if a direct measure of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale designed for use with dementia patients can detect differences between persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly control subjects (NC).

Methods: This study used cross-sectional and longitudinal IADL scale data from MCI and NC subjects followed at an Alzheimer’s Disease


Results: On a eFT508 52-point scale, MCI subjects (n = 30) scored significantly lower than NC subjects (n = 30) on the IADL scale (total score 47.17 vs. 48.77 points; t (58) = 2.34, p = .011) and its Memory subscale (5.27 vs. 6.6 points; t (58) = 3.29, p = .002). Examination of annualized IADL scale change scores revealed that 50% of MCI subjects had declined by one point, compared with 29% of NC.

Conclusion: A direct IADL measure for dementia patients is able to detect small differences between MCI and NC and cross-sectionally and longitudinally, but does not distinguish between groups.”
“There have not been yet enough studies about effects of beta glucan and gliclazide on oxidative stress created by streptozotocin in the brain and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats.

The aim of this paper was to investigate the antioxidant effects of gliclazide and beta glucan

on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation created by buy Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library streptozotosin in brain and sciatic nerve. Total of 42 rats were divided into 6 groups including control, diabetic untreated (DM) (only STZ, diabetic), STZ (DM) + beta glucan, STZ (DM) + gliclazide, only beta glucan treated (no diabetic), and only gliclazide treated (no diabetic). The brain and sciatic nerve tissue samples were analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and paraoxonase (PON-1) levels. We found a significant increase in MDA, TOS, and OSI along with a reduction in TAS level, catalase, and PON-1 Selleckchem LY411575 activities in brain and sciatic nerve of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Also, this study shows that in terms of these parameters both gliclazide and beta glucan have a neuroprotective effect on the brain and sciatic nerve of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Our conclusion was that gliclazide and beta glucan have antioxidant effects on the brain and sciatic nerve of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.”
“This paper reports on the evolution of an isolated electron swarm, which is experimentally observed as spatial distributions at every moment. This observation is assumed to directly correspond to the conventional time-of-flight theory.

Patients were assessed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rati

Patients were assessed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Stress and depressive symptoms among caregivers were evaluated

using the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) scale and the GDS. Only PD severity (HY) and mental symptoms (NPI) were significantly associated to caregiver distress. A major attention must be given to the early identification of factors generating stress in caregivers in order to improve caregiver quality of life and patient’s care.”
“The growth of world demand for protein-enriched products generates a great interest in the search of new protein sources of higher nutritional value and, therefore, in the use of cutting edge technologies to achieve that goal. In this work, technologies of ultrafiltration and freeze-drying to process PD0325901 and obtain a protein concentrate from bovine plasma proteins are employed. The effectiveness of inulin as protectant agent to prevent protein denaturation was evaluated during freeze-drying and

storage. The shelf life time of the product with the oligosaccharide was estimated to analyze its stabilizing power. The results showed that when 10% w/v inulin was employed as lyoprotectant the protein denaturation was significantly reduced with a shelf life of 14 months, Ro-3306 stored at 2 degrees C. The proteins concentrate combines improved functional properties due to reduction of protein denaturation, indicating that it could be very

interesting as food ingredient. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A novel compressible magnetorheological fluid (CMRF) has RXDX-101 nmr been synthesized with additives that provide compressibility to the fluid. This CMRF has been designed to provide an elastic component to a magnetorheological fluid (MRF) that can be used as a springless damper. CMRF provides controllable compressibility to the MRF. The controllability of the fluid is achieved by the use of magnetic particles and an external magnetic field, and the fluid is made compressible by the addition of suspended compressible polymer particles. The compressibility of the fluid has been characterized with force-displacement measurements. This CMRF has controllable off-state viscosity and high shear yield stress. The incorporation of polymeric particles into the MRF also decreases the settling of iron particles and improves the redispersion of the fluid. To make the fluid more redispersible, the surface of the iron particles is coated with a high-temperature fluorinated polymer. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 3348-3356, 2010″
“Objective This study aimed to compare the prevalence of depressed mood and anhedonia in a sample of men with prostate cancer (PCa) and to determine which of these key symptoms contributed most to the overall depressive status of that sample.

Regardless of the test chosen, clinical pitfalls including age an

Regardless of the test chosen, clinical pitfalls including age and obesity must be taken into account. In addition, there is considerable analytical variation in the biochemical measurements of GH and IGF-1 which must be considered before making a diagnosis of GHD in adulthood.”
“Background: The contribution of peritoneal small solute clearance per se to peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient outcomes remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to determine selleck chemicals llc whether baseline peritoneal small solute clearance predicted subsequent survival in Australian and New Zealand PD patients.

Methods: The study included all adult patients in Australia and New Zealand that commenced PD between 1 April 2002

and 31 December 2005 and had a peritoneal Kt/V (pKt/V) measurement performed within 6 months of PD commencement. Time to death and death-censored technique failure were examined by Kaplan-Meier analyses and both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: pKt/V measurements were available in 2434 (63%) of the 3841 individuals that began PD treatment in Australia and New Zealand during the study

period. These patients were divided into 4 groups according to their baseline pKt/V values: <1.45 (n = 599), 1.45-1.69 (n = 550), 1.70-2.00 (n = 607), and >2.00 (n = 678). Compared with the reference group (pKt/V 1.70-2.00), patient mortality was significantly increased in individuals with pKt/V <1.45 [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-2.84; p = 0.003] and tended to be increased in those with pKt/V 1.45-1.69 (adjusted HR AICAR research buy 1.46, 95% CI 0.96-2.21; p = 0.074). Importantly, higher pKt/V values (>2.00) also tended to be associated with higher mortality (adjusted HR 1.42, 95% CI 0.96-2.11; p = 0.079). The other independent predictors of death were lower residual renal function (RRF), older age, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, late referral, higher peritoneal permeability, and untreated hypertension. No interaction was observed between pKt/V, RRF, mTOR inhibitor and survival. Death-censored technique failure was demonstrated to be significantly

worse in the pKt/V 1.45-1.69 group (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.79; p = 0.028), older individuals, and individuals with Asian racial origin.

Conclusions: Initial peritoneal Kt/V significantly and independently influences patient survival in Australian and New Zealand PD patients. Overall survival appears to be optimal in the pKt/V range 1.70-2.00, with poorer outcomes observed above and below these values. In particular, survival is significantly worse when the achieved pKt/V is < 1.45. In addition, RRF is an important independent predictor of patient survival in the Australian and New Zealand incident PD patient populations. The results of this study should therefore draw attention to the possible danger of not delivering adequate PD dose to patients with considerable RRF.

An Emax model with a delayed response compartment was fitted to d

An Emax model with a delayed response compartment was fitted to data using population modeling. Results Nineteen of 60 neonates included in the PARANEO study received monotherapy with IV paracetamol to treat mild to moderate pain (e.g., alprostadil administration,

delivery related trauma). Using repeated measures anova, there was a trend (P=0.02) for lower pain scores within 30min after administration, with a slight increase in pain scores from 5 to 6h. An Emax model had a maximum effect of 4.15 pain units, an EC50 of 2.07mg center dot l-1. Equilibration halftime (T1/2keo) was 1.58h. Conclusion Intravenous paracetamol is effective for moderate pain. An effect compartment concentration of 10mg center dot l-1 (loading dose of 20mg

center dot kg-1) is associated with a pain score reduction of 3.4 LNPS units. This analysis suggests a similar paracetamol effect compartment concentration high throughput screening in neonates compared to children.”
“Background: Angola’s malaria case-management policy recommends treatment with MLN2238 order artemether-lumefantrine (AL). In 2006, AL implementation began in Huambo Province, which involved training health workers (HWs), supervision, delivering AL to health facilities, and improving malaria testing with microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Implementation was complicated by a policy that was sometimes ambiguous.

Methods: Fourteen months after implementation began, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 33 outpatient facilities in Huambo Province to assess their readiness to manage malaria

and the quality of malaria case-management for patients of all ages. Consultations were observed, patients were interviewed and re-examined, and HWs were interviewed.

Results: Ninety-three HWs and 177 consultations were evaluated, although many sampled consultations were missed. All facilities had AL in-stock and at least one HW trained to use AL and RDTs. However, anti-malarial stock-outs in the previous three months were common, clinical supervision was infrequent, and HWs had important knowledge gaps. Except for fever history, clinical assessments were often incomplete. Although testing was recommended for all patients with suspected malaria, only 30.7% of such patients were tested. Correct testing was significantly associated with NSC 617989 HCl caseloads < 25 patients/ day (odds ratio: 18.4; p < 0.0001) and elevated patient temperature (odds ratio: 2.5 per 1 degrees C increase; p = 0.007). Testing was more common among AL-trained HWs, but the association was borderline significant (p = 0.072). When the malaria test was negative, HWs often diagnosed patients with malaria (57.8%) and prescribed anti-malarials (60.0%). Sixty-six percent of malaria-related diagnoses were correct, 20.1% were minor errors, and 13.9% were major (potentially life-threatening) errors. Only 49.0% of malaria treatments were correct, 5.4% were minor errors, and 45.6% were major errors.

The effects of changes in daily coffee intake between both groups

The effects of changes in daily coffee intake between both groups on the development of fatty liver were investigated after adjustments for related factors, such as BMI, daily coffee and alcohol intake and exercise level. In the cross-sectional

study, the subjects with fatty liver were revealed to have a lower daily coffee intake than those without fatty liver. In the follow-up study, a significant difference in the changes in daily coffee intake was observed between the fatty liver and non-fatty liver groups with a decrease in daily coffee intake observed in Glutaminase inhibitor the former group, compared with the change in the latter group. Further, daily coffee intake was negatively correlated with the development of fatty liver after adjustments for related factors. These findings suggest a protective effect of coffee against fatty liver.”
“Hemangiomas are vascular anomalies characterized by increased proliferation and turnover of endothelial cells. Hemangiomas of the parotid region are relatively uncommon in adult population, and there are a few reports of hemangioma with large phlebolith within the parotid gland. We herein report a case of it. Sialography may be a useful investigation method in the evaluation of radiopaque lesions localized intraglandularly in the parotid area to rule out the sialolith. Cavernous hemangioma with phleboliths

should be included in the differential diagnosis of a swelling in the mandibular area.”
“Introduction: Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN)

have become standard for the surgical management of small renal masses (SRMs). However, no studies have evaluated the short-term outcomes or cost of RALPN as compared with hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (HALPN) in a standardized fashion.

Methods: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent HALPN or RALPN from 2006 to 2010 were assessed for patient age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, radiographic tumor size, nephrometry (radius, endo/exophytic, nearness to collecting system, anterior/posterior, lines of polarity [RENAL]) scores, operative and room Pexidartinib times, hospital length of stay (LOS), estimated blood loss (EBL), requirement of hilar vessel clamping, warm ischemia time (WIT), pre- and postprocedural creatinine and hemoglobin levels, and complications. Total costs of the procedures were estimated based on operating room component (operative staff time, anesthesia, and supply) and hospital stay cost (room and board, pharmacy). A robotic premium cost, estimated based on the yearly overall cost of the da Vinci S surgical system divided by the annual number of cases, was included in the RALPN cost. Cost figures were obtained from hospital administration and applied to the mean HALPN and RALPN patient.

“Objective: To investigate the outcome of cochlear implant

“Objective: To investigate the outcome of cochlear implantation in children with postmeningitic deafness and to compare the outcomes in ossified and nonossified cochleas.

Study Design: A retrospective case note review of children with postmeningitic deafness requiring cochlear implantation.

Setting: Manchester Auditory Implant Centre-a tertiary referral center.

Patients: Children younger than 16 years with postmeningitic deafness.


Cochlear implantation to aid auditory habilitation.

Main Outcome Measure: Outcomes were measured using Categories of Auditory Performance Score and the Manchester Speech and Language Development Scale.

Results: Fifty-two children underwent I-BET-762 cochlear implantation. Patients were allocated to 2 groups-Group 1 with nonossified

cochleas and Group 2 with cochlear ossification. Group 1 comprised 25 children, of whom, 22 had Categories of Auditory Performance Score of 5 or higher. Nineteen of Q-VD-Oph them were able to use simple phrases of 3 words or more on the Manchester Speech and Language Development Scale. Group 2 comprised 27 children. Fourteen had partial ossification with complete standard electrode insertion in all instances. Of the 13 children with gross ossification, 3 had scala vestibuli insertion, 7 had split electrode insertion and 3 had partial electrode insertion. In this group, 20 children had Categories of Auditory Performance Score of 5 or higher. Nineteen children were able to use simple phrases of 3 words or more on Manchester Speech and Language Development Scale.

Conclusion: Children with postmeningitic deafness benefit significantly from cochlear implantation. However, the audio-logic outcomes are difficult to predict, especially in the presence of cochlear ossification. Acquisition of speech and language in these children after cochlear implantation is possible even in the presence of gross EPZ015938 mouse cochlear ossification.”
“Bartonella henselae, a small fastidious Gram-negative bacillus, is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD). Because of difficulty in isolating the organism, there has been no

report on its antibiotic susceptibility in Japan. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of eight antimicrobial agents against 32 isolates of B. henselae (31 from cats and one from a human in Japan) by the Etest method. MICs of all 32 isolates were < 0.016 mu g/ml for minocycline and ranged from a parts per thousand currency sign0.016 to 0.064 mu g/ml for erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, and amoxicillin. MICs ranges of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were from 0.064 to 0.25 mu g/ml and from 0.5 to 3 mu g/ml, respectively. All isolated strains showed high susceptibility to minocycline and macrolides antibiotics, which are currently used in the primary treatment of CSD in Japan. Although in vitro result of B.

X-ray diffraction further confirmed the vertical (111) directiona

X-ray diffraction further confirmed the vertical (111) directionality with low crystal tilt by rocking curve widths (omega scans) as low as similar to 0.6 degrees. These findings demonstrate the capability to precisely tailor the position and size of well-oriented III-V semiconductor nanowires through noncatalytic MBE selective area growth and provide an important step toward fully integrated, uniform vertical III-V nanowire array-on-Si devices. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3525610]“
“This theme issue pursues an exploration of

the potential of taking into account the environmental sensitivity of development to explaining the evolution of metazoan life cycles, with special focus on complex life cycles and the role of developmental plasticity. The evolution of switches between alternative phenotypes as a response

to different environmental cues and the evolution of the control of the temporal expression of alternative ML323 in vivo phenotypes within an organism’s life cycle are here treated together as different dimensions of the complex relationships between genotype and phenotype, fostering the emergence of a more general and comprehensive picture of phenotypic evolution through a quite diverse sample of case studies. This introductory article reviews fundamental facts and concepts about phenotypic plasticity, adopting the most authoritative terminology in selleck inhibitor use in the current literature. The main topics are types and components of phenotypic variation, the evolution of organismal traits through plasticity, the origin and evolution of phenotypic plasticity and its adaptive value.”
“This paper considers phonon transport behavior in graphene nanoribbons

(GNRs) that bridge semi-infinite graphene contacts. The work employs an atomistic Green’s function (AGF) method to investigate phonon wave effects in GNRs with both zigzag and armchair edges. Thermal conductances are learn more found to be sensitive to the edge shape of the ribbons; a sandwiched zigzag GNR structure has almost twice the thermal conductance of the corresponding armchair structure. Results show that the graphene/GNR interface moderately reduces phonon conductance compared to a freestanding GNR. At fixed device lengths, conductance increases with the width of GNR. On the other hand, conductance decreases with GNR length. The zigzag ribbons show smaller reduction upon increasing of GNR length than armchair ribbons; the conductances of both ribbons converge to a length-independent value. For very short devices, thermal conductance can exceed that of a single graphene-GNR interface. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3514119]“
“In a now classic paper published in 1991, Alberch introduced the concept of genotype-phenotype (G -> P) mapping to provide a framework for a more sophisticated discussion of the integration between genetics and developmental biology that was then available.