The mutant has full ligation activity with pre-adenylated substra

The mutant has full ligation activity with pre-adenylated substrates but retained the undesirable activity of deadenylation, which is the reverse of step 2 adenylation. A second mutant, an alanine substitution for the catalytic lysine in motif I (K97A) abolished activity BX-795 chemical structure in the first two steps of the ligation reaction, but preserved wild type ligation activity in step 3. The activity of the K97A mutant is similar with either pre-adenylated RNA or single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as donor substrates but we observed two-fold preference for RNA as an acceptor substrate compared to ssDNA with an identical sequence. In contrast, truncated T4 RNA ligase 2, the commercial enzyme used in these applications, is significantly

more active using pre-adenylated RNA as a donor compared to pre-adenylated ssDNA. However, the T4 RNA ligases are ineffective in ligating ssDNA acceptors.\n\nConclusions: Mutational analysis of the heat stable RNA ligase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum resulted in the creation of JNK inhibitor an ATP independent ligase. The K97A mutant is defective in the first two steps of ligation but retains full activity in ligation of either RNA or ssDNA to a pre-adenylated linker. The ability of the ligase to function at 65 degrees C should reduce the constraints of RNA secondary structure in RNA ligation experiments.”
“Aqueous ethanol (80%) extracts of six plants used traditionally for treatment of malaria, Vepris glomerata (F. Hoffm.)

Engl (Rutaceae), Maranthus floribunda (Bak.) F. White (Chrysobalanaceae), Strophanthus eminii Asch. & Pax ex Pax (Apocynaceae), Cassia abbreviata Oliv. (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia bonducella L. Fleming (Fabaceae) were screened for antimalarial activity 3-MA nmr to establish validity of their claims. The extracts exhibited antimalarial activity in the 4-day Peter’s suppressive antimalarial assay in mice inoculated with red blood cells parasitized with Plasmodium berghei. The extracts gave ID(50) values of 42.8, 111.0, 639.3 and 1560 mg/ kg body wt for C. bonducella, C. abbreviata, T. furialis and S. eminii, respectively. The ID50 values for V. glomerata and M. floribunda were above 2400 mg/ kg body wt, above which point

solubility was a problem. All the tested extracts were innocuous to the mice, up to 2400 mg/ kg body wt, suggesting they may be safe for short-term use.”
“As part of the government’s initiative to reduce waiting times for major joint surgery in Wales, the Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust sent 224 patients (258 knees) to the NHS Treatment Centre in Weston-Super-Mare for total knee replacement. The Kinemax total knee replacement system was used in all cases. The cumulative survival rate at three years was 79.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 69.2 to 86.8) using re-operation for any cause as an endpoint and 85.3% (95% CI 75.9 to 91.8) using aseptic revision as an endpoint. This is significantly worse than that recorded in the published literature.

This was largely due to initiation of products containing only er

This was largely due to initiation of products containing only ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol. The odds of supplementation were greater in older, female,

non-Black, married participants with greater education and lower body mass index. Among participants taking supplementation, dose was positively associated with 25(OH) D level, adjusted for race, season, diabetes, dietary intake, eGFR, and proteinuria. Only 3.8% of non-Black and 16.5% of Black participants taking a supplement were deficient ( smaller than 20 ng/mL), whereas 22.7% of non-Black and 62.4% of Black participants not reporting supplement use were deficient. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation rates rose significantly among CRIC participants over 7 years of follow-up and were associated with greater serum 25(OH) D levels. Studies of vitamin D levels on clinical outcomes in CKD and future vitamin D interventional HSP990 purchase studies should consider these changes in supplementation practices. (C) 2014 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective To determine whether a midwife-led intervention improved preparation for twin parenting and

maternal psychosocial outcome. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two maternity units in North East England. Population A cohort of 162 women with uncomplicated twin pregnancy. Methods Self-completion questionnaire at multiple time points. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was probable postnatal depression (measured with AC220 mouse the Edinburgh Postnatal

Depression Scale, EPDS) 26 weeks after delivery. Secondary outcomes included preparation for parenting, maternal anxiety, parenting stress, and maternal wellbeing. Results The mean maternal EPDS scores at 26 weeks after delivery were 5.4 (SD 4.5) in the twin intervention (TI) group and 6.9 (SD 5.5) in the twin control (TC) group, and the mean difference between the groups was 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI, -0.2 to 3.3). The relative risk (RR) of having probable depression in the TI group compared with the TC group at 26 weeks was 0.48 (95% CI 0.19-1.20) for mothers and 0.84 (95% CI 0.42-1.70) for fathers. There were no statistically significant differences in maternal anxiety or parenting stress. TI mothers reported increased maternal wellbeing, reaction to motherhood, buy KU-57788 family support, mood, and greater self-confidence 26 weeks after delivery, and felt more prepared for parenting. Conclusion As a result of the limited sample size, the study was unable to detect a difference in maternal depression using the maternal EPDS mean score. The antenatal preparation for parenting programme did not improve postnatal maternal anxiety or parenting stress; however, it did improve postnatal maternal wellbeing, mood, self-confidence, reaction to motherhood, and better prepared mothers to parent twin infants. Midwives have a key role in preparing mothers to parent twins.”
“Patients with potential bone and soft tissue tumors can be challenging for orthopedic surgeons.

This study reveals the existence of a CD40L/CD40/TRAF axis in EOC

This study reveals the existence of a CD40L/CD40/TRAF axis in EOCs and shows that sCD40L increases the pro-angiogenic function of EOCs on cultured HUVECs by inducing a significant increase in MMP-9 release via, at

least, the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.”
“Protein tau plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, where its hyperphos-phorylation promotes aggregation and microtubule destabilization. Tau undergoes alternative splicing which generates six isoforms in the human brain, due to inclusion/exclusion of exons 2, 3 and 10. Dysregulation of the splicing process of tau exon 10 is sufficient to cause tauopathy and has shown to be influenced by beta-amyloid peptides, but splicing of other exons is less studied. We studied

the effects of beta-amyloid(42) in the alternative splicing of tau exons 2/3 and 6, using untreated and Nerve ERK inhibitor Growth Factor-induced PC12 cells. Beta-amyloid exposure caused formed cell processes to retract in differentiated cells and altered the expression of exons 2/3 in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Expression of exon 6 was repressed in undifferentiated cells only. Our results suggest that beta-amyloid interferes with the splicing process of exons 2/3, favoring their exclusion and thus the expression of immature tau isoforms that are less efficient in stabilizing microtubules and may also be more prone to hyperphosphorylation. The molecular mechanism for this amyloid-tau interaction remains Staurosporine nmr to be determined, but may have potential

implications for the understanding ASK inhibitor of the underlying neuropathological processes in Alzheimer’s disease.”
“We undertook a systematic search and review of individual, family, community, and societal risk and protective factors for mental health in children and adolescents who are forcibly displaced to high-income countries. Exposure to violence has been shown to be a key risk factor, whereas stable settlement and social support in the host country have a positive effect on the child’s psychological functioning. Further research is needed to identify the relevant processes, contexts, and interplay between the many predictor variables hitherto identified as affecting mental health vulnerability and resilience. Research designs are needed that enable longitudinal investigation of individual, community, and societal contexts, rather than designs restricted to investigation of the associations between adverse exposures and psychological symptoms. We emphasise the need to develop comprehensive policies to ensure a rapid resolution of asylum claims and the effective integration of internally displaced and refugee children.”
“Lack of Klotho expression in mice leads to premature aging and age-related diseases, including vascular diseases.

In an attempt to accelerate the molecular understanding of B ibe

In an attempt to accelerate the molecular understanding of B. ibericus, we sequenced 680.5 Mb of genomic DNA using the genome sequencer GS-FLX-Titanium. We obtained 2,062,621 reads (average read length 329.9 bp) and 145,418 contigs (total contigs length 125.7 Mb) after excluding small

reads (less than 200 bp) from the assembly, and finally obtained 10,133 unigenes Z-DEVD-FMK (E value a parts per thousand currency sign 9.00E-04) after non-redundant (NR) BLAST search. In this article, we summarize the genomic DNA sequences of B. ibericus and discuss their potential use in the study of reproductive biology, endocrinology, environmental genomics, and ecotoxicological studies, and for providing insight into the genetic basis of mechanisms such as egg formation, antioxidant stress defense, and xenobiotic metabolism.”
“Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) generally increase primary production of terrestrial ecosystems. Production responses to elevated [CO2] may be particularly large in deserts, GDC-0994 cost but information on their long-term response is unknown. We evaluated the cumulative effects of elevated [CO2] on primary production at the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air carbon dioxide enrichment) Facility. Aboveground and belowground perennial plant biomass was harvested in an intact Mojave Desert ecosystem at

the end of a 10-year elevated [CO2] experiment. We measured community standing biomass, biomass allocation, canopy cover, leaf area index (LAI), carbon and nitrogen content, and isotopic composition of plant tissues for five to eight dominant

species. We provide the first long-term results of elevated [CO2] on biomass components of a desert ecosystem and offer information on understudied Mojave Desert species. In contrast to initial expectations, 10years of elevated [CO2] had no significant effect on standing biomass, biomass allocation, canopy cover, and C:N ratios of above- and belowground components. However, elevated [CO2] increased short-term responses, including leaf water-use efficiency (WUE) as measured by carbon isotope discrimination and increased plot-level LAI. Standing BIBF-1120 biomass, biomass allocation, canopy cover, and C:N ratios of above- and belowground pools significantly differed among dominant species, but responses to elevated [CO2] did not vary among species, photosynthetic pathway (C3 vs. C4), or growth form (drought-deciduous shrub vs. evergreen shrub vs. grass). Thus, even though previous and current results occasionally show increased leaf-level photosynthetic rates, WUE, LAI, and plant growth under elevated [CO2] during the 10-year experiment, most responses were in wet years and did not lead to sustained increases in community biomass. We presume that the lack of sustained biomass responses to elevated [CO2] is explained by inter-annual differences in water availability.

Purpose: To examine relationships between cumulative victimizatio

Purpose: To examine relationships between cumulative victimization and physical health among heterosexual and lesbian women and determine whether these relationships differ by sexual identity. Methods: Large samples of heterosexual

(n = 482) and lesbian women (n = 394) were interviewed. Questions included lifetime victimization experiences and physical health problems. Results: Compared to women who reported no childhood victimization, those who reported experiencing both CSA and CPA were 44% more likely to report health problems and women who experienced all four types of victimization (CSA, CPA, APA, ASA) were nearly 240% as likely to report physical health problems. Interaction analyses revealed the Vactosertib cell line association between victimization and physical health did not differ by sexual identity. Conclusions: Although lesbians were more likely to report all types of victimization, results suggest that victimization conferred increased physical health risks regardless of sexual identity.”
“We report the case of a newborn with an aneurysmal aorto-left ventricular tunnel causing significant paravalvular aortic regurgitation and obstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), coexisting with a bicuspid aortic valve. The coexistence of the two malformations together with the

obstruction of the RVOT is very rare. In this case, the prompt diagnosis and surgery led to significant improvement of the clinical status and BEZ235 in vitro to recovery of the left ventricular function (increase of the ejection fraction from 21 to 41 %), underlining the importance of early diagnosis in this rare malformation.”
“The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which UV radiation modulates inflammation and immunity while simultaneously maintaining skin homeostasis is complex and not completely understood. Similar to the effects of UV, IL-33 has potent immune-modulating properties that are mediated by the downstream induction of cytokines and chemokines. We have discovered that exposure of mice in vivo or human skin samples ex vivo to inflammatory doses of UVB induced IL-33 expression within the epidermal

and dermal skin layers. Using a combination of murine cell lines and primary human cells, we demonstrate that both UV and the oxidized lipid platelet activating factor induce IL-33 expression in keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Highlighting the significance of these results, we found that administering IL-33 to mice in vivo suppressed the induction of Th1-mediated contact hypersensitivity responses. This may have consequences for skin cancer growth because UV-induced squamous cell carcinomas that evade immunological destruction were found to express significantly higher levels of IL-33. Finally, we demonstrate that dermal mast cells and skininfiltrating neutrophils closely associate with UV-induced IL-33-expressing fibroblasts.

“A photosensitive chaotic oscillator

which can be

“A photosensitive chaotic oscillator

which can be controlled with light illumination under various control voltage levels is proposed. The oscillator consists of a photodiode for the light input, clock switches and capacitors for the sample and hold function, a nonlinear function that creates an adjustable chaos map, and a voltage shifter that adjusts the output voltage for feedback. After optimizing the photodiode sub-circuit by using an available photodiode model in PC-based simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis to obtain a suitable output, the full chaotic circuit is verified with standard 0.6-mu m complementary metal oxide semiconductor parameters. Chaotic dynamics are analyzed as a function of the light intensity under different control voltage levels. The time series, frequency spectra, transitions in state spaces, bifurcation diagrams and the largest Lyapunov exponent are improved.”
“Changes in climate are affecting the distribution and status of species on a global scale, through alteration of factors including their phenology, growth and ecological interactions. These alterations are often most apparent at species range edges, where changes to conditions previously limiting the species distribution can click here result in range shifts. In this paper, we review the rapid recent increase in our understanding of the factors limiting the distribution

of a species to explore how the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors is likely to significantly alter its range edge behaviour beyond our current predictive capacity. We focus on Scots pine (Pious sylvestris L), one of the most abundant tree this website species on the globe. Glacial refugia and colonisation routes after last glacial maximum

have strongly influenced the genetic diversity and local adaptation of this species. Over recent decades, increased reproduction and growth has been detected at the northern limit of P. sylvestris as a response to increased temperature, whereas at its southern limit, increased drought stress has resulted in decreased growth, low recruitment, and in some cases a massive mortality of this species. In addition, direct climatic effects on the species are acting together with indirect effects due to altered biotic interactions including outbreaks of insects, pathogens, and parasites, and increased herbivory linked to declining ecosystem productivity. However, whilst predictive studies forecast a gradual decline of the species at the southern range limit and expansion at higher latitudes, models do not commonly include biotic factors, which can significantly modify the response of the species to climatic changes. We conclude by discussing the early detection of imperilled areas and how their natural resistance and resilience to ongoing climatic changes might be increased. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

“Several novel sulfides, called garlicnins B-2 (1), B-3 (2

“Several novel sulfides, called garlicnins B-2 (1), B-3 (2), B-4 (3), Cilengitide C-2 (4), and C-3 (5), were isolated from acetone extracts of garlic, Allium sativum L. and characterized.

These garlicnins are capable of suppressing M2 macrophage activation and they have a novel skeleton of cyclic sulfoxide. The structures of the former 3 and latter of 2 were deduced to be 2-(sulfenic acid)-5-(allyl)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrothiophene-S-oxides and 2-(allyldithiine)-5-(propenylsulfoxide)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrothiophene-S-oxides, respectively. The mechanism of the proposed production of these compounds is discussed. The identification of these novel sulfoxides from garlic accumulates a great deal of new chemistry in the Allium sulfide field, and future pharmacological investigations of these compounds will aid the development of natural, healthy foods and anti-cancer agents that may prevent or combat disease.”

new polyether squalene derivatives 15-dehydroxythyrsenol A (2), prethyrsenol A (3) and 13-hydroxyprethyrsenol A (4) have been isolated from the red alga Laurencia viridis. Their structures were determined through the interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data and chemical correlations. In addition, four semi-synthetic compounds modulating the solubility of the lead compound dehydrothyrsiferol (1) were prepared without loss of activity. The cytotoxicity of the new MAPK Inhibitor Library purchase compounds exhibited low mu M activities. In order to explain their biological properties, docking see more simulations of the natural and synthetic compounds onto the alpha v beta 3 integrin binding region were carried out. (C) 2011 Elsevier

Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Here we address the role of RIG-I and TLR3 in differential cytokine responses against Simian Virus 5 (SV5) and two distinct cytokine inducing SV5 mutants. IFN-beta and IL-6 secretion was induced by infection with P/V-CPI-, an SV5 mutant with P/V substitutions, and were reduced by either siRNA-mediated knockdown of RIG-I expression or by expression of a dsRNA-binding protein. TLR3 overexpression did not alter cytokine secretion induced by P/V-CPI- or by Le-(U5C, A14G), an SV5 promoter mutant. TLR3 signaling by addition of exogenously added dsRNA was not blocked by WT SV5 or either SV5 mutant. Unexpectedly, TLR3 activation in infected cells led to enhanced IL-8 secretion, which correlated with increased RIG-I expression. Dominant negative RIG-I and TRIF supported a model whereby TLR3 activation upregulates RIG-I expression and in turn hypersensitizes cells to RIG-I-mediated cytokine secretion. Implications for crosstalk between different innate immunity pathways in mounting antiviral responses to paramyxoviruses are discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Conclusion:Our findings show that an ABI of 1 3 or more p

\n\nConclusion:\n\nOur findings show that an ABI of 1.3 or more predicts for both overall and cardiovascular mortality, and an ABI of less than 0.9 predicts for cardiovascular mortality in CKD and haemodialysis patients. Screening patients with chronic renal failure by means of ABI may help to identify a high-risk group for increased mortality.”
“Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate the correlation between dental injuries and the pattern of maxillofacial fractures. The correlation with age, gender, trauma mechanism and type of maxillofacial

fracture was also investigated. Materials and methods: From January 2000 to December 2009, 1131 patients with facial fractures were registered. Of these, 473 presented with associated buy P505-15 dental trauma. The information and data collected and analyzed included: age, gender, mechanism this website of injury, type of facial fracture, type of dental injury, and the relationship between dental injury and facial fracture. Results: Dental injury was sustained by 473 patients (41.8%), with a total of 2215 injured teeth. Of the 2215 injured teeth, 1191 (53.8%) were in the maxilla and 1024 (46.2%) in the mandible. Fall from a height had the highest risk of dental injuries (OR = 4.145, P = 0.002). The central incisor was the most injured tooth for both the maxilla (388, 36.2%) and mandible (284, 27.7%). The

most common type of dental injury was avulsion (1070, 47.4%). More anterior teeth in the maxilla were of crown fracture, avulsion, and intrusion than that in the mandible, whereas more anterior teeth in the mandible were of subluxation and concussion than that in the maxilla. Dental injuries were more prone to occur in patients

who sustained only symphysis fractures (OR = 2.817, P < 0.001), only 0.236-fold risk in patients who Selleck WZB117 sustained only mandible angle fracture (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The occurrence of dental trauma is significantly related to the pattern and position of the maxillofacial fractures.”
“The adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions using coconut shell modified powder was investigated in batch experiments. The surface charge of the adsorbent was determined. The points of zero charge (PZC) of the adsorbents (pH(PZC)) were 4.5, 2.0, and 2.0 to raw coconut (RC), raw coconut alkalized (RCA), and coconut shell modified with tannic acid (TCA) adsorbent, respectively. Batch experiments were performed under kinetic and equilibrium conditions. The kinetic data were analyzed using a pseudo second-order, and Elovich equation. Adsorption equilibrium data were investigated using the Langmiur, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Raduschevich (D-R) isotherm models. It has been found that chemically modified coconut shell (TAC) affected performance when compared with unmodified coconut shell (RC). Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order rate model.

06-1 61) These findings indicate that the FASLG-844C allele is e

06-1.61). These findings indicate that the FASLG-844C allele is emerging as a low-penetrant cancer

susceptibility allele for cancer development. However, more comprehensive understanding of the association would certainly have an immense prospect in the promising click here field of individualised preventive care. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Type 17 Th (Th17) cells have been identified as a distinct population of CD4(+) effector T cells different from Th1 and Th2 ceUs. While the pre-eminent cytokine of Th17 cells is IFN-gamma and that of Th2 cells is IL-4, the distinctive cytokine of Th17 cells is IL-17A. However, although murine and human Th1 and Th2 cells exhibit strong similarities, human and murine Th17 cells seem to differ in several aspects.”
“Due to the involvement of alpha-Synuclein (alpha-Syn) in lipid transport and its role in the normal function and in the pathology of Parkinson disease, it is important JQ-EZ-05 in vivo to study first the surface properties of the protein at the air/water interface

and second its behavior related to biological membranes. For this purpose, the monomolecular film technique was used as membrane model to compare the interactions with various phospholipids of monomeric and fibrillar forms of alpha-Syn. We have determined the equilibrium surface pressure of the two forms of alpha-Syn (monomeric and fibrillar form) at the air/water interface. The surface pressures reached by monomeric alpha-Syn were shown to be higher than the ones of fibrillar alpha-Syn and similar to the value obtained by mellitin, a lytic peptide of bee venom, which has been described as “protein detergent”. The monomeric

alpha-Syn adsorbed more rapidly at the air/water interface with a maximal adsorption rate at least 60-times higher than the fibrillar form. In the presence of a phospholipid monolayer, the surface activities of two alpha-Syn forms are much greater than observed at the air/water interface. Also we can show that the fibrillar form of alpha-Syn have a higher value of critical pressure than the monomeric one for the cow brain Amino acid transport inhibitor extract and the Phospatidyl Glycerol (an anionic phospholipid) which confirm its higher affinity for the anionic phospholipid than the monomeric form. According these results, we can suggest that this aggregate form have important implications for the pathological activity and, therefore, for the associated neurotoxicity which can results in layer disruption and cell leakage. Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Background: High override rates for drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts in electronic health records (EHRs) result in the potentially dangerous consequence of providers ignoring clinically significant alerts. Lack of uniformity of criteria for determining the severity or validity of these interactions often results in discrepancies in how these are evaluated.

8 Gy (lethal dose, 100% lethality over 30 days) Indralin (40-120

8 Gy (lethal dose, 100% lethality over 30 days). Indralin (40-120 mg kg(-1)) was administered intramuscularly 5 min prior to radiation exposure. Indralin taken at a dose of 120 mg kg(-1) protected five out of six monkeys (compared with the radiation control group, in which all 10 animals died). The average effective dose of indralin in the monkeys exposed to gamma irradiation for 30 min was equal to 77.3 (63.3-94.3) mg kg(-1), and the maximum tolerated dose of indralin administered to monkeys was 800 mg kg(-1). Indralin reduced radiation-induced injuries in macaques, thus resulting in a less

severe course of acute radiation syndrome. Delayed and less pronounced manifestation of the haemorrhagic syndrome of the disease, and milder forms of both leukopenia and anaemia were also selleck chemicals llc noted. The therapeutic index for indralin, PLX4032 cell line expressed as the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the average effective dose(,) was equal to 10. Therefore, indralin has a significant radioprotective effect against radiation and has a high therapeutic index

in rhesus monkeys.”
“Background: Accessories, watches, coins and other items containing metal sometimes cause contact dermatitis and metal allergy. Among metals, nickel in alloys is ionized by sweat on the surface of the skin and exhibits particularly marked irritancy and allergenicity. Although eosinophils play important roles in allergy, the effects of nickel on eosinophils have not been elucidated. Methods: Eosinophils were prepared from the peritoneal cavity in rats immunized with Ascaris suum extract. Purified rat eosinophils were incubated in the presence of various kinds of metals including nickel. The viability of eosinophils was analyzed using a flow cytometer. Results: When rat eosinophils were incubated for 3 days in the presence of nickel chloride at 30-1,000 mu M, the viability of eosinophils was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Nickel chloride at 300 mu M significantly increased the percentage of annexin V(+) PI(-) eosinophils. The population of annexin V(+) PI(-) eosinophils was also increased Selleckchem Nutlin3 by nickel sulfate, cobalt chloride and zinc sulfate. The

binding of nickel ions to eosinophils was detected by flow cytometer. Conclusions: Nickel ions bind to eosinophils and decrease the viability of eosinophils through the induction of apoptosis. Nickel ions may exhibit activity which modifies the function of eosinophils in allergy. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Constitutive models facilitate investigation into load bearing mechanisms of biological tissues and may aid attempts to engineer tissue replacements. In soft tissue models, a commonly made assumption is that collagen fibers can only bear tensile loads. Previous computational studies have demonstrated that radially aligned fibers stiffen a material in unconfined compression most by limiting lateral expansion while vertically aligned fibers buckle under the compressive loads.