The mutant has full ligation activity with pre-adenylated substrates but retained the undesirable activity of deadenylation, which is the reverse of step 2 adenylation. A second mutant, an alanine substitution for the catalytic lysine in motif I (K97A) abolished activity BX-795 chemical structure in the first two steps of the ligation reaction, but preserved wild type ligation activity in step 3. The activity of the K97A mutant is similar with either pre-adenylated RNA or single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as donor substrates but we observed two-fold preference for RNA as an acceptor substrate compared to ssDNA with an identical sequence. In contrast, truncated T4 RNA ligase 2, the commercial enzyme used in these applications, is significantly
more active using pre-adenylated RNA as a donor compared to pre-adenylated ssDNA. However, the T4 RNA ligases are ineffective in ligating ssDNA acceptors.\n\nConclusions: Mutational analysis of the heat stable RNA ligase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum resulted in the creation of JNK inhibitor an ATP independent ligase. The K97A mutant is defective in the first two steps of ligation but retains full activity in ligation of either RNA or ssDNA to a pre-adenylated linker. The ability of the ligase to function at 65 degrees C should reduce the constraints of RNA secondary structure in RNA ligation experiments.”
“Aqueous ethanol (80%) extracts of six plants used traditionally for treatment of malaria, Vepris glomerata (F. Hoffm.)
Engl (Rutaceae), Maranthus floribunda (Bak.) F. White (Chrysobalanaceae), Strophanthus eminii Asch. & Pax ex Pax (Apocynaceae), Cassia abbreviata Oliv. (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia bonducella L. Fleming (Fabaceae) were screened for antimalarial activity 3-MA nmr to establish validity of their claims. The extracts exhibited antimalarial activity in the 4-day Peter’s suppressive antimalarial assay in mice inoculated with red blood cells parasitized with Plasmodium berghei. The extracts gave ID(50) values of 42.8, 111.0, 639.3 and 1560 mg/ kg body wt for C. bonducella, C. abbreviata, T. furialis and S. eminii, respectively. The ID50 values for V. glomerata and M. floribunda were above 2400 mg/ kg body wt, above which point
solubility was a problem. All the tested extracts were innocuous to the mice, up to 2400 mg/ kg body wt, suggesting they may be safe for short-term use.”
“As part of the government’s initiative to reduce waiting times for major joint surgery in Wales, the Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust sent 224 patients (258 knees) to the NHS Treatment Centre in Weston-Super-Mare for total knee replacement. The Kinemax total knee replacement system was used in all cases. The cumulative survival rate at three years was 79.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 69.2 to 86.8) using re-operation for any cause as an endpoint and 85.3% (95% CI 75.9 to 91.8) using aseptic revision as an endpoint. This is significantly worse than that recorded in the published literature.