29 mu M as regard to Doxorubicin (IC50 = 7.36 mu M). Concerning the antibacterial activity, compounds 3m and 3z exerted remarkable activity against the tested bacterial species compared to Ampicillin, whereas compound 6c showed good activity against only Gram positive species. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Recent evidence has suggested an association between microalbuminuria and ultrasound-diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with diabetes and
prediabetes However, few data are available on the occurrence of microalbuminuria in nondiabetic subjects with histologically proven NAFLD Y-27632 molecular weight We thus evaluated the relationships between microalbuminuria and liver histology in a hospital-based sample of 87 adults with biopsy-proven NAFLD from Turkey An albumin excretion rate less than 30 mg/d was considered within the reference range, whereas an albumin excretion rate from 30 to 300
mg/d was considered to indicate microalbuminuria Compared with those without microalbuminuria (n = 73), NAFLD patients with microalbuminuria (n = 14) had significantly higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance values (3 9 +/- 1 3 vs 5 8 +/- 3 7, P < 001) There were no differences in the prevalence of microalbuminuria in patients with definite nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, borderline nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and simple fatty liver In the entire study cohort, mean fibrosis scores were significantly higher in patients with microalbuminuria Bafilomycin A1 order than in those without (1 27 +/- 0.26 vs 0 80 +/- 0 11, P < 05) This difference persisted after adjustment for potential IWR-1-endo confounders These results indicate the presence of a significant association between the seventy of insulin resistance and microalbuminuria in patients with NAFLD In addition, microalbuminuria may identify NAFLD patients with higher fibrosis scores (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved”
“Phytocannabinoids are useful therapeutics for multiple applications including treatments
of constipation, malaria, rheumatism, alleviation of intraocular pressure, emesis, anxiety and some neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Consistent with these medicinal properties, extracted cannabinoids have recently gained much interest in research, and some are currently in advanced stages of clinical testing. Other constituents of Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant, however, remain relatively unexplored in vivo. These include cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Delta(9)-THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG).\n\nWe here determined pharmacokinetic profiles of the above phytocannabinoids after acute single-dose intraperitoneal and oral administration in mice and rats. The pharmacodynamic-pharmacokinetic relationship of CBD (120 mg/kg, ip and oral) was further assessed using a marble burying test in mice.
96; 95% CI, 0.75
to 1.24), in the IVT/combined IVT-IAT group, 47 of 77 (61%) men and 24 of 43 (56%) women (aRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.60), and in the IAT group, 142 of 185 (77%) men and 71 of 102 (70%) women (aRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.17). Mortality was not different between men and women in the antithrombotic treatment group (aRR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.16), the IVT/combined IVT-IAT group Nepicastat chemical structure (aRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.73), or in the IAT group (aRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.36). Insufficient recanalization after combined IVT-IAT or IAT was similar in men and women (23% versus 22%; aRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.46).\n\nConclusions-In patients with acute basilar artery occlusion, no significant gender differences for outcome and recanalization were observed, regardless of treatment modality. (Stroke. 2010; 41: 2693-2696.)”
“Background\n\nTubal sterilization by hysteroscopy involves inserting a foreign body in both fallopian tubes. Over a three-month Combretastatin A4 mouse period, the tubal lumen is occluded by tissue growth stimulated by the insert.
Tubal sterilization by hysteroscopy has advantages over laparoscopy or mini-laparotomy, including the avoidance of abdominal incisions and the convenience of performing the procedure in an office-based setting. Pain, an important determinant of procedure acceptability, can be a concern when tubal sterilization is performed in the office.\n\nObjectives\n\nTo review all randomized controlled trials that evaluated interventions to decrease pain during tubal sterilization by hysteroscopy.\n\nSearch methods\n\nFrom January to March 2011, GPCR Compound Library nmr we searched the computerized databases of MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, and CINAHL for relevant trials. We searched for current trials via Clinicaltrials.gov. We also examined the reference lists of pertinent articles and wrote to known investigators for information about other published or unpublished trials.\n\nSelection
criteria\n\nWe included all randomized controlled trials that evaluated pain management at the time of sterilization by hysteroscopy. The intervention could be compared to another intervention or placebo.\n\nData collection and analysis\n\nInitial data were extracted by one review author. A second review author verified all extracted data. Whenever possible, the analysis was conducted with all women randomized and in the original assigned groups. Data were analyzed using RevMan software. Pain was measured using either a 10-cm or 100-point visual analog scale (VAS). When pain was measured at multiple points during the procedure, the overall pain score was considered the primary treatment effect. If this was not measured, a summation of all pain scores for the procedure was considered to be the primary treatment effect. For continuous variables, the mean difference with 95% confidence interval was computed.\n\nMain results\n\nTwo trials met the inclusion criteria. The total number of participants was 167.
The important management topics are discussed in this review, and the use of enzyme-replacement therapy with recombinant human iduronate-2-sulfatase as a specific treatment for Hunter syndrome is presented. Pediatrics 2009; 124: e1228-e1239″
“Background: Evidence-based quality improvement in nursing homes relies heavily on administrative LY3023414 clinical trial data. Minimum Data Set (MDS) and Online
Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) are the 2 largest sources of national nursing home administrative data. Although clinical measures in each of the data systems have frequently and independently been used to measure nursing home performance, no study has systematically examined their relative reliability.\n\nObjectives: This study estimates the reliability of clinical measures between MDS and OSCAR data and discusses the utility of these databases in research.\n\nResearch Design: We analyzed 4 waves of national MDS and OSCAR data (1999-2002). A comparable group of 24 clinical indicators from both datasets was
selected for the reliability test. Spearman rank-order correlation analyses were used to measure the test-retest reliability relationships.\n\nResults: Across the 4 years, the majority of coefficients of clinical measures exhibit good reliability. There are 17 clinical measures (71% of the total measures) U0126 with correlation coefficients greater than 0.4, the minimally acceptable reliability threshold according to Morris. The highest correlation coefficients were associated with tube feeding at 0.883.\n\nConclusions: Our findings indicate that the target GSK3326595 price clinical measures in OSCAR and MDS arc generally consistent and reliable. However, researchers Should use OSCAR self-reported clinical measures to measure nursing home outcomes in place of corresponding MDS clinical measures with
caution because some indicators in the administrative data are more reliable than others.”
“Aims: The aim of this study was to compare demographics, clinical manifestations, associated systemic and ocular factors, severity and activity of patients with unilateral thyroid eye disease (U-TED) versus bilateral thyroid eye disease (B-TED). Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism and primary hypothyroidism seen in an endocrinology clinic were included from September 2003 to July 2006. Demographics, complete eye examination, severity score (NOSPECS, total eye score), and clinical activity score were recorded and compared in the B-TED and U-TED groups of patients. Results: From 851 patients with thyroid disorders, 303 (35.6%) had TED. Thirty-two patients (32/303, 10.56%) were found to have U-TED. Patients with U-TED (mean age 31.6 +/- 11.6 years) were significantly younger than patients with B-TED (mean age 37.7 +/- 14.7 years). Monovariate analysis (Chi-square and independent sample t-test) showed a significantly higher severity score in B-TED (U-TED 4.09 +/- 4.05, B-TED: 6.7 +/- 6.3; P= 0.
The SLE flares during pregnancy make the difference between an uncomplicated pregnancy and pregnancy with maternal and fetal complications. Therefore, the knowledge of risk factors leads the best treatment strategies to reduce flares and fetal complications in SLE patients.”
“Entecavir (ETV) plus adefovir (ADV) combination therapy is one of the useful treatment option for the patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who had failed on prior nucleos(t) ide analogue (NA) treatments. This study compared the efficacies of the
combinations of ETV 0.5mg plus ADV and ETV 1.0mg plus ADV in patients who had failed on prior multiple NA S63845 price treatments. This retrospective analysis included 148 consecutive patients with CHB infection in Korea (n=37 with ETV 0.5mg plus ADV and n=111 with ETV 1.0mg plus ADV). The virological and biochemical responses were VX 770 compared between the two groups. The cumulative probability of viral suppression of ETV 0.5mg plus ADV was not inferior to that of ETV 1.0mg plus ADV (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-1.08; P=0.094). The changes in serum HBV DNA level in the ETV 0.5mg plus ADV group were not different between the two groups over 12 months. Moreover, no significant difference was
observed in acquiring ETV-resistant variants between the two groups during the treatment (HR, 0.95; P=0.953). This study suggests the proof-of-concept that the lower dose of NA in combination with other NA might be the theoretical option for rescue combination therapy in patients with CHB who had failed on prior multiple NA treatments in order to reduce systemic exposure and possible side effects of NA. J. Med. Virol. 87:999-1007, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“overexpression of IL-6 markedly diminishes hyperoxic lung injury, hyperoxia-induced cell death, and DNA fragmentation, and enhances Bcl-2 expression. We hypothesized that changes
in the interactions between Bcl-2 family members play an important role in the IL-6-mediated protective response Nepicastat clinical trial to oxidative stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that IL-6 induced Bcl-2 expression, both in vivo and in vitro, disrupted interactions between proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors, and suppressed H(2)O(2)-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro. In addition, IL-6 overexpression in mice protects against hyperoxia-induced lung mitochondrial damage. The overexpression of Bcl-2 in vivo prolonged the survival of mice exposed to hyperoxia and inhibited alveolar capillary protein leakage. In addition, apoptosis-associated DNA fragmentation was substantially reduced in these animals. This IL-6-mediated protection was lost when Bcl-2 was silenced, demonstrating that Bcl-2 is an essential mediator of IL-6 cytoprotection.
\n\nData Sources: PubMed was searched for trials published in English LIP to January 2008 evaluating modafinil’s effects on fatigue, negative symptoms,
and cognition in schizophrenia with combinations of the following terms: schizophrenia, modafinil, cognition, negative symptoms, and fatigue.\n\nStudy Selection: Six trials were identified: 2 randomized, prospective, double-blind placebo-controlled trials; 3 randomized, prospective. double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials and 1 open-label pilot study. Case series and case reports were excluded in the data analysis. except to identify potential adverse reactions to modafinil.\n\nData Extraction: Studies were examined for number of subjects,
trial duration, design, dosing, LDC000067 and outcomes with respect to sedation, negative symptoms, cognitive function, and tolerability.\n\nResults: One of 4 reviewed studies found a significant effect of modafinil as an alerting agent for anti psychotic-induced fatigue and sedation. Neither of 2 reviewed Studies found modafinil to improve negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Three of 6 reviewed studies showed that modafinil may improve short-term memory, attention, and the ability to shift mental sets. Two neuroimaging studies identified functional correlates in areas associated NCT-501 with working memory functions. The main adverse effect was found to be it small risk of psychosis exacerbation, which was seen in 5 of 83 patients (6.0%) in the active treatment groups as compared to 2 of 70 patients (2.9%) in the placebo groups.\n\nConclusions: While the available data suggest that modafinil
is generally well tolerated and may have some efficacy in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced sedation and cognitive domains. the small sample sizes, contradictory results,”
“Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) were incorporated into chitosan hydrogel to form a film on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) leading to a sensing element for D-arabinitol with excellent oxidative HM781-36B in vivo catalytic activity. The electrochemical response to D-arabinitol was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Operational parameters affecting the response were examined and optimized, and a simple and sensitive method was established for the determination of D-arabinitol. Response is linear in the concentration range from 10 mu mol center dot L(-1) to 10 mmol center dot L(-1), and the limit of detection is 1.0 mu mol center dot L(-1). The method may be combined with separation techniques in order to analyze for the ratio of D- and L-arabinitol which is a diagnostic marker for candidiasis.
The growth of six of eight isolated actinomycetes
strains, all of which were identified as close to Streptomyces RG-7388 ic50 neyagawaensis, was enhanced by ATP treatment. This study suggests that exATP regulates bacterial physiology and that the exATP response system is a target for the control of bacterial ecology.”
“Supramolecular assemblies of benzenepentacarboxylic acid (BPC) and 4,4′-bipyridine (bpy) as hepta- and di-hydrates in a 2:1 and 1:1 ratios of the respective co-crystal formers, as well as an anhydrous complex of 1:2 ratio have been reported. The three supramolecular complexes [(BPC-)(2)(bpy(2+))(H2O)(7)], 1a, [(BPC-)(bpy(+))(bpy)], 1b and [(BPC2-)(bpy(2+))(H2O)(2)], 1c, were obtained by carrying out co-crystallization experiments at varied conditions. 1a and 1b were obtained at ambient and hydrothermal conditions, respectively, while 1c also was obtained at hydrothermal conditions but only in the presence of Ni(NO3)(2). All the molecular complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. Molecules
in all the complexes are packed in the form of stacked layers with the realization of host-guest network in la and lc along a crystallographic axis, wherein the host network is formed by BPC and water molecules through different types of hydrogen bonding patterns and bpy molecules remain as guests in the voids, while in 1b, a ladder type network is observed. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background. The aim of this study was the assessment of kidney morphology and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) GSK923295 mw in rat models of polycystic AG-881 supplier kidney disease and
a healthy control group of Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats). The performance of two non-invasive GFR estimation methods-3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging were investigated. Data of GFR assessment was compared to surrogate markers of kidney function and renal histology.\n\nMethods. Optical imaging of GFR was performed transcutaneously in a small animal imaging system with the fluorescent renal marker fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labelled-sinistrin. Morphologic and dynamic renal imaging was done on a clinical 3.0T MR scanner. Renal perfusion analysis was performed with a two-compartment filtration model.\n\nResults. The healthy SD rats showed physiological levels of creatinine and urea, indicating normal kidney function. These parameters were elevated in the small animal groups of polycystic kidney disease. For the calculation of perfusion and filtration parameters of kidney function in MRI, a 2D turbo FLASH sequence was performed and allowed to distinguish between normal GFR of healthy rats and reduced GFR of rats with polycystic kidney disease. Also, MRI GFR varied among two different rat strains of polycystic kidney disease, according to their status of renal function impairment.
S74F, p.E121D, p.Y254C, p.E260K, p.T394P and p.N495Y;
we also found a small deletion (c.1142delC) and a probable deep intronic mutation that causes the loss of exon 5 (c.423_566del) found in cDNA. Both mutations are described in this study for the first time. We also identified 20 polymorphisms previously reported and 2 novel ones: (c.633 + 222 T/C and c.898 + 25 C>G).\n\nIn conclusion, we have identified the mutations responsible for Mucopolysaccharidosis IV A in Spain. We found great allelic heterogeneity, as occurs in other populations, which hinders the establishment of genotype-phenotype correlations in Spain. This study has been very useful for genetic counseling to the affected families. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Phase transition from body-centered-cubic spheres to cylinders in a diblock copolymer melt under an external electric field is investigated CYT387 price by means of real-space dynamical self-consistent field theory. Different phase transition kinetic pathways and different cylindrical domains arrangements of the final phase are observed depending on the strength and direction of the applied electric field. Various transient states have been identified depending on the electric field
being applied along , , and  directions. The electric field should be above a certain threshold value in order the transition to occur. A “dynamic critical exponent” of the transition MI-503 concentration is found this website to be about 3/2, consistent with other order-order transitions in diblock copolymers under electric field. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4791639]“
“Clinical Research Coordinators (CRCs) are a vital component of the clinical research enterprise providing a pivotal role in human subject protection through the numerous activities and responsibilities assigned to them. In 2006, the National Institutes of Healths National Center for Research resources (NCRR) implemented the Clinical and Translational Science Awards program (CTSA) to advance biomedical research.
As a part of this endeavor, many workgroups were formed among the Consortium to support translational research. The Research Coordinator Taskforce was created as part of the Regulatory Knowledge group of the Clinical Research Innovation Key Function Committee, and focuses on enhancing CTSA capabilities to provide support and training for CRCs. In the spring of 2008, this taskforce conducted two surveys of the then 24 CTSA Consortium members to better understand the current expectations and responsibilities of research coordinators in addition to the mechanism for providing education, training, and support in order for CRCs to successfully meet the study responsibilities placed upon them.
“Fried fish paste (FFP) samples were divided into www.selleckchem.com/products/Pazopanib-Hydrochloride.html four treatments:
a control composed of commercial FFP containing no breast meat batter from spent laying hens, and treatments 1, 2, and 3, in which Itoyori surimi was substituted with 7.46, 14.93, and 22.39 % batter from the breast meat of whole spent laying hens, respectively. Moisture content was significantly lower in T3 than in the FFP samples, whereas crude fat was significantly higher in T3. Polyunsaturated fatty acid contents were significantly higher in the control than the other FFP samples, whereas saturated fatty acid contents were significantly higher in T3. The breaking force, deformation, gel strength, and jelly strength values were higher in the control than the other FFP samples www.selleckchem.com/products/ew-7197.html during storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as a measure of lipid oxidation, and volatile basic nitrogen, as a measure of protein degradation, were significantly higher in T3 than in the other samples. Additionally, the control had a significantly lower TBARS
level than the other samples. In sensory evaluation, color, aroma, flavor, and juiciness were not significantly different among FFP samples during storage. The results show that physicochemical properties such as gel characteristics, shear force, and fatty acid composition are influenced by substitution with spent laying hen meat batter. However, sensory evaluation scores are less influenced by this substitution.”
“Complicated neuronal circuits can be genetically encoded, but the underlying developmental algorithms remain largely unknown. Here, we describe a developmental algorithm for the specification of synaptic partner cells through axonal sorting in the Drosophila visual map. Our approach combines intravital imaging of growth cone dynamics in developing brains of intact pupae and data-driven
computational modeling. These analyses suggest that three simple rules are sufficient to generate the seemingly complex neural superposition wiring of the fly visual map without an elaborate molecular matchmaking code. Our computational model explains robust and precise wiring in a crowded brain region despite extensive growth cone overlaps and provides a framework Birinapant cell line for matching molecular mechanisms with the rules they execute. Finally, ordered geometric axon terminal arrangements that are not required for neural superposition are a side product of the developmental algorithm, thus elucidating neural circuit connectivity that remained unexplained based on adult structure and function alone.”
“Parechoviruses are assumed to be common infectious agents, but their epidemiologic and pathogenic properties are not well known. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Parechovirus in Norwegian infants, as well as to investigate whether the presence of virus correlated with symptoms of infection.
Early detection of cardiac BEZ235 dysfunction may identify a high-risk subset of survivors for early intervention. OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine the prevalence of cardiac dysfunction in adult survivors of childhood malignancies. METHODS Echocardiographic assessment included 3-dimensional (3D) left ventricular ejection
fraction (LVEF), global longitudinal and circumferential myocardial strain, and diastolic function, graded per American Society of Echocardiography guidelines in 1,820 adult (median age 31 years; range: 18 to 65 years) survivors of childhood cancer (median time from diagnosis 23 years; range: 10 to 48 years) exposed to anthracycline chemotherapy (n = 1,050), chest-directed radiotherapy (n = 306), or both (n = 464). RESULTS Only 5.8% of survivors had abnormal 3D LVEFs ( smaller than 50%). However, 32.1% of survivors with normal 3D LVEFs had evidence of cardiac dysfunction by global longitudinal strain (28%), American Society of Echocardiography-graded diastolic assessment (8.7%), or both. Abnormal global longitudinal strain was associated with chest-directed radiotherapy at 1 to 19.9 Gy (rate ratio [RR]: 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 1.66), 20 to 29.9 Gy (RR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.31 to 2.08), and bigger than 30 Gy (RR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.79 to 3.18) and anthracycline dose bigger than
300 mg/m(2) (RR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.31 to 2.26). Survivors Selleckchem AZD1208 with metabolic syndrome were twice as likely to have abnormal global longitudinal strain (RR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.66 to 2.28) and abnormal diastolic function (RR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.39 to 2.03) but not abnormal
3D LVEFs (RR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.53). CONCLUSIONS Abnormal global longitudinal strain and diastolic function are more prevalent than reduced 3D LVEF and are associated with treatment exposure. They may identify a subset of survivors at higher risk for poor clinical cardiac outcomes who may benefit S3I-201 solubility dmso from early medical intervention. (C) 2015 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.”
“MIM [missing in metastasis; also called MTSS1 (metastasis suppressor 1)] is an intracellular protein that binds to actin and cortactin and has an intrinsic capacity to sense and facilitate the formation of protruded membranous curvatures implicated in cellular polarization, mobilization and endocytosis. The N-terminal 250 amino acids of MIM undergo homodimerization and form a structural module with the characteristic of an I-BAR [inverse BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs)] domain. To discern the role of the dimeric configuration in the function of MIM, we designed several peptides able to interfere with MIM dimerization in a manner dependent upon their lengths. Overexpression of one of the peptides effectively abolished MIM-mediated membrane protrusions and transferrin uptake. However, a peptide with a high potency inhibiting MIM dimerization failed to affect its binding to actin and cortactin.
085 (P = 0.008).\n\nConclusions: Our findings Ruboxistaurin manufacturer suggest that brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is a significant predictive factor for cardiovascular disease in the general Japanese population and that information on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity substantially improves cardiovascular risk assessment beyond that achieved by a model based on potential risk factors in general practice.”
herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), an AIDS-related endothelial cell malignancy that is the most common cancer in central and Southern Africa. The KSHV Viral G Protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) is a viral oncogene that conveys a survival advantage to endothelial cells and causes KS-like tumors in mouse check details models. In this study we investigate the role of Shp2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase in vGPCR signaling. Shp2 is vital to many cytokine-induced signaling pathways and is dysregulated in various infections and malignancies. It has also recently been implicated in angiogenesis. We find that vGPCR activity results in phosphorylation
of regulatory tyrosines in Shp2 and that in turn, Shp2 is required for vGPCR-mediated activation of MEK, NF kappa B, and AP-1. Furthermore, both genetic and chemical inhibition of Shp2 abrogate vGPCR-induced enhancement of endothelial cell migration. This establishes Shp2 as an important point of convergence of KSHV vGPCR signaling and a potential molecular target in the design of an anti-KSHV therapeutic regimen. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We demonstrate that the interfacial hole injection barrier Delta(h) between p-type organic materials (i.e., CuPc and pentacene) and
Co substrate can be tuned by the insertion of a MoO3 buffer layer. Using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, it was found that the introduction of MoO3 buffer LY294002 inhibitor layer effectively reduces the hole injection barrier from 0.8 eV to 0.4 eV for the CuPc/Co interface, and from 1.0 eV to 0.4 eV for the pentacene/Co interface, respectively. In addition, by varying the thickness of the buffer, the tuning effect of Delta(h) is shown to be independent of the thickness of MoO3 interlayer at both CuPc/Co and pentacene/Co interfaces. This Fermi level pinning effect can be explained by the integer charge-transfer model. Therefore, the MoO3 buffer layer has the potential to be applied in p-type organic spin valve devices to improve the device performance via reducing the interfacial hole injection barrier. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://0-dx.doi.org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.1063/1.4740455]“
“Lectins are important components of the immune defense system of invertebrates. Given their important functions, numerous investigations have been carried out on the characterization and function of lectins in invertebrates. However, lectin studies with the freshwater planarian, an evolutionarily important animal, are rare.