Their motivation, indexed using operant performance, increased as

Their motivation, indexed using operant performance, increased as they progressed through schedules ending in reward delivery. The responses of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons around the time of major task events, visual cues predicting trial outcome and operant action to complete a trial were similar in that they occurred at the same time. They were also similar in that they both responded most strongly to the first cues in schedules, which are the most informative cues. The

neuronal responses around the time of the monkeys’ actions were different, in that the response intensity profiles changed in opposite directions. Dopaminergic responses were stronger around predictable rewarded correct actions whereas noradrenergic responses check details were greater around predictably unrewarded correct actions. The complementary response profiles related to the monkeys operant actions suggest that DA neurons

might relate to the value of the current action whereas the noradrenergic neurons relate to the psychological cost of that action.”
“Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by unexplained fatigue lasting for more than 6 months and accompanied by flulike symptoms. It most commonly affects women aged between 30 and 60 years. To date, clear diagnostic criteria allowing for unambiguous diagno-sis of CFS have Dinaciclib in vitro not been established. We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with chronic fatigue syndrome in order to showcase the symptoms of this condition and propose a diagnos-tic protocol.”
“The appropriate management of acute viral encephalitis is a challenge. Clinical picture includes general symptoms and a wide range of neurological signs. Etiological diagnosis cannot be performed only by clinical means and depends on neuroimaging studies and cerebrospinal fluid molecular analyses. It is recommended since some of SCH727965 molecular weight these viruses are treatable and that the prognoses of

these infections depend on the prompt administration of antiviral and/or immunomodulatory drugs. The management of acute viral encephalitis in Brazil has some peculiarities. First, the etiological distribution of the viral encephalitis may differ from what is found in other countries. Some viruses, such as dengue virus, are more common in Brazil than in developed countries while others, like West Nile virus, are not found here. Second, there are some regions in Brazil where neuroimaging and laboratorial methods are not available, and a clinical-based decision is the only therapeutic approach. As most of the guidelines in the literature are based on complimentary methods, it is relevant to establish an alternative approach compatible with the Brazilian health system reality.

In the present study, 227 samples of milk and dairy products were

In the present study, 227 samples of milk and dairy products were randomly collected and examined for the presence of Campylobacter spp. Samples were collected from the Egyptian area Abou-Homos, where the pathogen had been previously shown to be a major causative agent of intestinal disease. Potential Campylobacter isolates were speciated using a multiplex PCR assay targeting the housekeeping gene LpxA. Only raw milk and fresh Domiati cheese samples were found to contain

Campylobacter jejuni at low incidence rates. Using a selected C. CH5424802 datasheet jejuni isolate recovered in this study, it was shown that the pathogen maintained its viability in Domiati cheese more than in yoghurt, yet it survived in both products more than expected. This suggests that this

foodborne strain of C jejuni may develop adaptive strategies that aid survival under food preservation conditions, which contradicts with what is known about this pathogen as a stress-sensitive organism. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Adipose and myxoid tumors in children are an unusual and challenging group of neoplasms that have some unique aspects in contrast to these tumors in adults. Less than 10% of soft tissue neoplasms in the 1st 2 decades of life have an adipose phenotype and most are benign. The most common are various types of lipoma and lipoblastoma. Liposarcoma in young patients is rare and has a distinctive distribution of histologic subtypes, including classic GSK2126458 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor myxoid liposarcoma, and unusual variants, such as pleomorphic-myxoid liposarcoma. Pathologic examination enhanced by adjunct techniques, such as immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic or molecular genetic studies, is useful for

classification of difficult cases. Myxoid tumors can overlap with adipose tumors and are included in this review because of the morphologic similarities and importance of diagnostic accuracy. This article reviews the clinicopathologic features of adipose and myxoid tumors with an emphasis on the unique aspects of these neoplasms in children and adolescents and the differential diagnosis.”
“The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to trigger final oocyte maturation in a GnRH antagonist protocol has been associated with poorer clinical outcomes due to an increased luteal-phase Autophagy inhibitor defect. It has been shown that LH activity is crucial in a normal luteal phase. Studies assessing the LH concentrations after clomiphene citrate co-treatment have observed increased luteal-phase LH concentrations. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to analyse the effect of clomiphene citrate on the endocrine profile in the luteal phase when using GnRH agonist trigger. This was evaluated in eight oocyte donors undergoing ovarian stimulation using clomiphene citrate in combination with recombinant FSH compared with a control group of five donors treated with recombinant FSH only.

Crown Copyright (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier

Crown Copyright (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier INCB024360 Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to determine whether the recent refinement and downsizing of the implants for posterior cervical fusion increase the occurrence of implant failure.

One hundred forty-two consecutive cases of cervical fusion, using either cannulated Magerl screws or a multiaxial pedicle screw-rod system,

were reviewed retrospectively after an average follow-up period of more than 3 years, and the rate and characteristics of the failure of these implants were evaluated.

Implant failure occurred in six (4.2%) patients: five with rheumatoid arthritis and one with athetoid cerebral palsy. Occipital plate fracture occurred in two patients, Magerl screw breakage in one patient, cervical pedicle

screw fracture in two patients, and disassembly of the pedicle AZD9291 screw and rod in two patients (one with an occipital plate fracture). There was no rod fracture. The implant failures were asymptomatic, except in one patient. Disassembly of the pedicle screw and rod was observed immediately after another surgical procedure under general anesthesia in two patients.

The failure rate of 4.2% was similar to the rates reported in the literature for posterior lumbar spinal fusion, confirming the reliability of the recent cervical screw-rod system.”
“Purpose: This controlled prospective study aims to investigate the possible effects of antibiotic treatment on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and its derivatives, and consequently on the transrectal biopsy rates, in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty patients aged 45 to 70 years old, with a PSA level between 2.5 and 10 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examinations (DRE), were included in this study between June 2009 and November 2010. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. The first group received oral levofloxacin 500mg 1*1 for 21 days; the second, the control group, was given no treatment. Initially, total PSA, free PSA, a DRE, urinary ultrasonography (including prostate volume,

postvoiding residual urine), uroflowmetry, IPI-549 mouse International Prostate Symptom Score, National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index, and International Index of Erectile Function tests were performed. All of these were repeated at the end of 3 weeks of antibiotic treatment. An additional PSA measurement was also performed at day 10 of the treatment. All patients underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy at day 21, just the day after the final (third) PSA sampling.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 59.6 years. Overall, in 23 patients, prostate cancer was detected, including those found in the rebiopsies. Statistically, there were significant changes in values of PSA and its derivatives in the treatment group (from 5.31 to 4.69 and 4.58 ng/mL, consecutively).

For comparison purposes, both pH-and time-dependent polymers were

For comparison purposes, both pH-and time-dependent polymers were also tried. In vitro release studies were carried out at different pH (1.2, 6.8, and 7.4). Therapeutic efficacy of the prepared tablets compared to commercially available capsules and enema were evaluated in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rabbit colitis model. In pH-dependent polymers, Eudragit (EUD) S100/EUD L100 GSI-IX (1: 1) released 45.58% in the target area (colon). For time-dependent polymers, decreasing cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) ratio increased the release in both pH 6.8 and 7.4 till it reached 40.58% and 93.65%, respectively, for 25% CAB. In enzyme-dependent

polymers, increasing pectin ratio to 75% retarded the release (4.59% in pH 6.8 and 54.45% in pH 7.4) which was significantly enhanced to 99.31% PP2 nmr using pectinolytic enzyme. Formula F14 coated with 75% pectin significantly reduced the inflammatory cells in the connective tissue core of the colon of the treated group and significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity (3.90 U/g tissue weight). This study proved that BUD compression-coated

with 75% pectin may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.”
“Background: Despite underuse of genetic services for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer risk among Latinas (including counseling and testing for BRCA mutations), there is little known about the barriers and facilitators to BRCA genetic counseling among this group. It is imperative to first understand factors that may impede Latinas seeking BRCA genetic counseling, as it is considered a prerequisite to testing.

Methods: Quantitative telephone interviews

(N=120) were conducted with at-risk Latinas in New York City BTSA1 cost to investigate interest, barriers, and beliefs about BRCA genetic counseling. Statistical analyses examined predictors of intention to undergo BRCA genetic counseling.

Results: Despite moderate levels of awareness, Latinas held largely positive beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge about BRCA genetic counseling. Perceived barriers included logistic concerns (e.g., where to go, cost/health insurance coverage), emotional concerns (e.g., fear, distress), and competing life concerns (e.g., too many other things to worry about, too busy taking care of children or family members). Multivariate results showed that the strongest predictor of intention to undergo BRCA genetic counseling was competing life concerns; Latinas with more competing life concerns were less likely to intend to undergo BRCA genetic counseling (p=0.0002). Other significant predictors of intention included perceived risk of carrying a BRCA mutation (p=0.01) and referral by their physician (p=0.02).

The most frequent foetal lesion was neutrophilic bronchopneumonia

The most frequent foetal lesion was neutrophilic bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia. Other commonly observed lesions included non-suppurative interstitial

enteritis, hepatitis, pericarditis, myositis, myocarditis, and meningitis. In this study, C. JNK-IN-8 fetus fetus was phenotypically classified in all bovine foetuses from lungs and abomasal fluids. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining revealed positive stained Campylobacter organisms with typical morphology. Lectin binding patterns not showed great differences between the infected and the non-infected groups. The most important changes were a minor peanut agglutinin (PNA) and DBA binding in the alveolar cells of the lungs and DBA globet cells in some of the C. fetus-positive foetuses. Individual variations in each lectin binding pattern complicate the evaluation of the lectins results. All foetuses positive to IHC selleck were positive by PCR. Better efficiency of PCR was obtained from abomasal fluids than from lung tissues. The association of culture and phenotypic techniques with histopathology, IHC and PCR allowed a better characterization and description of BC.”
“Background and aimsEvidence suggests that both the nicotinic receptor 5 subunit (CHRNA5)

and Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) genotypes influence smoking cessation success and response to pharmacotherapy. We examine the effect of CYP2A6 genotype on smoking cessation success and response to cessation pharmacotherapy, and combine these effects with those of CHRNA5 genotypes.

DesignPlacebo-controlled randomized smoking cessation trial.

SettingAmbulatory care facility in Wisconsin, USA.

ParticipantsSmokers (n=709) of European ancestry were randomized to placebo, bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy or combined bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy.

MeasurementsSurvival analysis was used to model time to relapse using nicotine metabolism derived from CYP2A6 genotype-based estimates. Slow metabolism

SBE-β-CD supplier is defined as the lowest quartile of estimated metabolic function.

FindingsCYP2A6-defined nicotine metabolic function moderated the effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy on smoking relapse over 90 days [hazard ratio (HR)=2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.32-5.99, P=0.0075], with pharmacotherapy significantly slowing relapse in fast (HR=0.39, 95% CI=0.28-0.55, P=1.97×10(-8)), but not slow metabolizers (HR=1.09, 95% CI=0.55-2.17, P=0.80). Further, only the effect of nicotine replacement, and not bupropion, varies with CYP2A6-defined metabolic function. The effect of nicotine replacement on continuous abstinence is moderated by the combined genetic risks from CYP2A6 and CHRNA5 (Wald=7.44, d.f.=1, P=0.0064).

ConclusionsNicotine replacement therapy is effective among individuals with fast, but not slow, CYP2A6-defined nicotine metabolism. The effect of bupropion on relapse likelihood is unlikely to be affected by nicotine metabolism as estimated from CYP2A6 genotype.

Although the maximum neutral lipid content of microalgae

Although the maximum neutral lipid content of microalgae see more has received much attention as a target

for optimization, there are other factors that are equally important. These are (1) the rates of accumulation of both biomass and lipids and (2) the maximum densities of algal cells that can be sustained in continuous cultivation. The combined effect of these factors for lipid production has not been thoroughly examined in Dunaliella species. Hence this study examines the rates of growth and lipid accumulation in Dunaliella salina using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) under several combinations of temperatures and cell densities.

ResultsThe FTIR signal at 2926cm(-1) (rather than 1740cm(-1)) is better for measuring LB-100 research buy lipids and the PCA of the full spectrum showed a clear separation between the nitrogen replete and nitrogen depleted cells.

As expected, cells subjected to nitrogen starvation (N-depleted) showed very little growth compared to the N-replete cells. N-depleted cells achieved a final lipid content that was 78% more than the N-replete samples at 26 degrees C, while the differential for 16 degrees C was 28%. However, the slower growth rates caused by the stress of nitrogen starvation meant that the total lipid production over the starvation period was lower for many samples. Indeed, the only stress condition that gave significantly higher total lipid production was the highest cell density studied at

26 degrees C.

ConclusionFor optimization of lipid productivity for biodiesel, the trade-off between lipid content, growth rate and cell density needs to be considered. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry”
“The spacer layer thickness dependence of interlayer exchange coupling has been investigated in the fully HDAC inhibitors cancer epitaxial trilayers of the Co2MnAl (CMA)/Cr/CMA structure. A series of high-quality samples of CMA (20 nm)/Cr (t(Cr)=0.3-8.1 nm)/CMA (10 nm) trilayers was prepared on a MgO substrate by ultrahigh vacuum compatible dc sputtering. Comparison of the results of the experiments and the simulations of magnetization curves revealed novel behavior, dominating the 90 degrees coupling and the absence of 180 degrees coupling. No clear oscillation, only a peak of the 90 degrees coupling strength (J(2) similar to -0.68 erg/cm(2)), was observed at t(Cr)=1.2 nm. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3070610]“
“Hepcidin is a small protein involved in iron metabolism that also exhibits antibacterial and antifungal activities. Since its discovery in 2000, hepcidin has been extensively studied in many research centers. Usage of natural and synthetic hepcidin inhibitors can be applied as a powerful therapeutic tool that targets multiple types of anemia. In addition, the protein itself has a potential to placate increased absorption of iron in patients with-thalassemia.

This report describes the clinical features of four patients infe

This report describes the clinical features of four patients infected with Escherichia coli (E. coli) O111 who developed very severe to fatal complications. The initial symptoms in all patients included abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloody stools,

and neurological abnormalities started to appear from 1 to 3 days after admission. Vomiting and pyrexia developed in three patients. Leukocyte counts, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products were elevated, and thrombocytopenia was evident. Extremely MAPK inhibitor elevated LDH and severe thrombocytopenia were characteristic at the time encephalopathy became apparent. All patients received oral fosfomycin, intravenous antibiotics, and anticoagulant therapy, three received gamma globulin, plasma exchange, and blood transfusion, and two received steroids and dialysis. Three patients required mechanical ventilation,

and two adult patients died. E. coli O111 positive for Shiga toxin 2 was detected in stool culture in two patients, and serological tests for E. coli O111 were positive in the other two patients. In conclusion, EHEC O111 can cause severe illness in children and adults, and the prognosis becomes poorer as the severity of complications increases. Close monitoring including platelet counts and LDH are useful. Once these clinical parameters change, intensive treatment should be provided to prevent the development of severe complications.”
“Objective: Liproxstatin-1 check details Establish whether hemolysis in samples collected from intravenous lines is influenced by catheterization site.

Methods: Blood was collected from all patients (67 total) admitted to the emergency department the same morning, through a 20-gauge catheter placed in a vein of the upper limb directly into an evacuated blood tube. Serum was tested for hemolysis index by multi-wavelength photometric readings.

Results: The frequency of hemolyzed specimens was 30% (20/67). Hemolysis rate

in median cephalic and basilic veins (17%) was comparable to that of median anterobrachial vein but lower than cephalic vein (29%; P=0.01), basilic vein (33%; P < 0.01), and metacarpal plexus veins (75%; P < 0.01). Compared with median basilic and cephalic veins, the relative risk of hemolysis was 1.4 from median anterobrachial vein, 1.6 from cephalic vein, 1.9 from basilic vein, and 4.3 from metacarpal plexus veins.

Conclusion: Drawing blood frocm catheters placed distally from median veins carries higher hemolysis risk.”
“About 25% of the patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) suffer movement disorders, including loss of voluntary control, bradykinesia, dystonia, myoclonus, and tremor. These movement disorders are generally difficult to manage and add considerably to the disease burden.


description: Pharmacy services within the depart


description: Pharmacy services within the department include a chronic disease medication therapy management clinic as well as consultation in various U0126 price other primary care and specialty clinics. Fourth-year student pharmacists complete advanced pharmacy practice experiences at this site as well.

Practice innovation: Based upon a need identified by department providers (physicians and physician assistants), an insulin titration-by-phone service was implemented by two faculty pharmacists. Patients were referred into this service by their primary care provider (PCP) and were called by one of the pharmacists on a regular basis. Pharmacist recommendations for insulin dose adjustments were made based on patient reported self-monitored glucose values. PCP approved recommendations and the patient was notified of changes.

Main outcome measure: Decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) within 9 months of referral to the service when compared with baseline.

Results: Analysis included 76 patients. The mean decrease in A1C was 1.55% (SD 2.31; P <0.001). The largest decrease in A1C (1.4%) was seen in the first 3 months after referral. Seven patients achieved an A1C <= 7% (P = 0.007). Forty-one patients had a decrease in A1C of at least 1% during the first 9 months after

their referral (P <0.001).

Conclusion: The implementation of a pharmacist-run insulin titration-by-phone service resulted in improvements in A1C that were most pronounced in the first 3 months after referral.”
“Subcutaneous mycoses are common in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. They are rarely observed in Europe. These mycoses are heterogeneous, SRT2104 but all are caused by penetrating trauma of the skin. Most cases in Europe are observed in returning travelers, aid workers, archaeologists and immigrants. Therefore, a careful, thorough history is essential in order to reach a proper diagnosis. We provide up-to-date epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic data on

the three most important imported subcutaneous mycoses in Europe: chromoblastomycosis, sporotrichosis and mycetoma.”
“This Selleck PXD101 study aimed to determine the excess length of stay, extra expenditures, and attributable mortality to healthcare-associated S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) at a teaching hospital in central Brazil. The study design was a matched (1:1) case-control. Cases were defined as patients >13 years old, with a healthcare-associated S. aureus BSI. Controls included patients without an S. aureus BSI, who were matched to cases by gender, age ( 7 years), morbidity, and underlying disease. Data were collected from medical records and from the Brazilian National Hospital Information System (Sistema de Informacoes Hospitalares do Sistema Unico de Saude – SIH/SUS). A Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to compare length of stay and costs between cases and controls. Differences in mortality between cases and controls were compared using McNemar’s tests.


Specific Questions

1 In the T2 to T5 re


Specific Questions

1. In the T2 to T5 region, what is the impact of different surgical approaches (anterior, posterior, combined anteroposterior [AP]) on local recurrence, adverse events, pain alleviation, and neurologic recovery?

2. Within the thoracolumbar spine (T6-T10; T11-L2; and L3-L5) what is the impact of different surgical approaches on outcomes as per question one.

The results of the systematic review were discussed with spine oncology experts through a modified Delphi technique to arrive at treatment recommendations.

Results. From the search

terms used 5176 abstracts were found. Based on the review of these abstracts, 161 were deemed acceptable. These abstracts selleck chemical were reviewed according to an inclusion and exclusion criteria, leaving 60 articles. These 60 articles were reviewed in detail leaving 32 articles for inclusion. There was no level I study.

There was 1 level II study, 5 level III studies, and 26 level IV studies. Most of these

studies selected Pinometostat clinical trial their approach by tumor topography. The quality of evidence was very low.

Conclusion. There is very low quality evidence to support the superiority of one approach over another. There is a strong recommendation for posterior or posterior-lateral approach from T2 through T5. For the T6-L5 regions of the spine we recommend either anterior, posterior, or combined anterior and posterior surgery depending on the clinical presentation, surgeon and patient preference.”
“Background: To understand how peritoneal dialysis (PD) was being used in Italy in 2005 and 2008, a census of all centers was carried out.

Methods: PP2 nmr In 2005 and 2008, data were collected from, respectively, 222 and 223 centers, with respect to 4432 and 4094 prevalent patients.

Results: In the two periods, the PD incidence remained stable

(24.3% vs 22.9%), varying from center to center. Continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) was the main initial method (55%), but APD was more widespread among prevalent patients (53%). Among patients returning to dialysis from transplantation (Tx), PD was used in 10%. The use of incremental CAPD increased significantly from 2005 to 2008, in terms both of the number of centers (27.0% vs 40.9%) and of patients (13.6% vs 25.7%). Late referrals remained stable at 28%, with less use of PD. The overall drop-out rate (episodes/100 patient-years) remained unchanged (31.0 vs 32.8), with 13.1 and 12.9 being the result of death, and 11.8 and 12.4 being the result of a switch to hemodialysis, mainly after peritonitis. A dialysis partner was required by 21.8% of the PD patients. The incidence of peritonitis was 1 episode in 36.5 and 41.1 patient-months, with negative cultures occurring in 17.1% of cases in both periods. The incidence of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (episodes/100 patient-years) was 0.70, representing 1.26% of patients treated. The catheter types used and the sites and methods of insertion varied widely from center to center.

delta-FlincG in transient and stably expressing cells shows a dis

delta-FlincG in transient and stably expressing cells shows a dissociation constant for cGMP of around 200 nm giving it a dynamic range of around 20-2000 nm. Stimuli that were previously shown to alter cGMP in plant cells (nitric oxide

and gibberrellic SCH727965 clinical trial acid) evoked pronounced fluorescence signals in single cells and in root tissues, providing evidence that delta-FlincG reports changes in cellular cGMP in a physiologically relevant context.”
“We compared the efficacy of single six mg/kg and 2×3 mg/kg caspofungin doses to the traditional one mg/kg daily against C. albicans in a neutropenic murine model. In lethality experiments, all regimens improved survival (p<0.0014 for all three isolates); differences among the treated groups were not statistically significant. We calculated kidney fungal burdens on each study day for six days postinfection using two isolates in two experiments. In the first three days, only

the six mg/kg dose produced significant decrease on all study days (p<0.05-0.001), but differences between the three treatment arms disappeared by 4-6 days postinfection (p<0.05 for all isolates on all days).”
“Background: Local fast-food environments have been increasingly linked to obesity and related outcomes. Individuals who are more sensitive to reward-related cues might be more responsive to such environments.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the moderating role of sensitivity to reward on the relation between residential fast-food restaurant exposure and fast-food consumption.

Design: Four hundred fifteen individuals (49.6% men; mean age: 34.7 y) were sampled from 7 Montreal census tracts stratified by socioeconomic status and French/English language. The frequency of fast-food restaurant visits in the previous week was self-reported. Sensitivity to reward was self-reported

by using the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) scale. Z-IETD-FMK purchase Fast-food restaurant exposure within 500 m of the participants’ residence was determined by using a Geographic Information System. Main and interactive effects of the BAS and fast-food restaurant exposure on fast-food consumption were tested with logistic regression models that accounted for clustering of observations and participants’ age, sex, education, and household income.

Results: Regression results showed a significant interaction between BAS and fast-food restaurant exposure (P < 0.001). Analysis of BAS tertiles indicated that the association between neighborhood fast-food restaurant exposure and consumption was positive for the highest tertile (odds ratio: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.84; P < 0.001) but null for the intermediate (odds ratio: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.34; P = 0.81) and lowest (odds ratio: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.51, 1.37; P = 0.49) tertiles.

Conclusion: Reward-sensitive individuals may be more responsive to unhealthful cues in their immediate environment. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 771-6.