, 1995, Colasante et al., 1996 and Ueda et al., 2006), probably as the result of a non-specific cell membrane disturbing action ( Kreger, 1991 and Chen et al., 1997). Albeit few pharmacological activities were described for Sp-CTx
(hemolysis and vascular tonus modulation) ( Andrich et al., 2010), the neutralisation of the local inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of crude S. plumieri venom by SFAV-treatment offers evidence that this scorpionfish cytolysin may possess other pharmacological actions. However, further studies are necessary to assess such potential features of this cytolysin. The results obtained demonstrated that the stonefish antivenom evoked an immune cross-reactive response with scorpionfish venom. SFAV is efficient learn more in neutralising the most prominent toxic effects of scorpionfish venom. find more This is in accordance with the hypothesis that venomous fish belonging to
different genera or inhabiting different regions may share venom compounds with similar antigenic properties (Church and Hodgson, 2002b). This resemblance may rely on the fact that piscine venoms have evolved for a same defensive purpose and possess similar multifunctional cytolytic toxins (Saunders, 1960, Russell, 1965, Kreger, 1991, Church and Hodgson, 2002b and Andrich et al., 2010). Finally, the study of such venoms and/or toxins may be useful for developing new and more specific antivenoms (or even antibodies) targeting specifically the fish venoms membrane-disturbing toxins and helping in alleviating the major symptoms of scorpionfish envenomation. This work was supported by CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico – 477514/06-5), DAAD-CAPES (Probral 250/06), INCTTOX (Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Toxinas) and FACITEC (Fundo de Apoio à Ciência e Tecnologia do Município de Vitória). We would like
to express our gratitude to Dr. Michael Richardson for revising this manuscript. The authors are indebted to M.L.B. Goze for capturing the fishes. “
“Monocrotaline (MCT), a pyrrolizidine alkaloid phytotoxin, has well-documented hepatic and cardiopulmonary toxicity for animals, including ruminants and humans (Mclean, 1970, Mattocks, 1986, Huxtable, 1989, Souza et al., Vasopressin Receptor 1997, Schultze and Roth, 1998, Stegelmeier et al., 1999, Nobre et al., 2004 and Nobre et al., 2005). This compound is frequently ingested accidentally because of food grain contamination or intentionally in the form of herbal medicine preparations (Huxtable, 1989). It has been reported that its toxicity depends on cytochrome P-450 mediated bioactivation to the reactive pyrrolic metabolite dehydromonocrotaline (DHM) (Butler et al., 1970, Lafranconi and Huxtable, 1984, Roth and Reindel, 1990, Wilson et al., 1992, Pan et al., 1993 and Schultze and Roth, 1998). This metabolite, despite having a half-life of only a few seconds in aqueous media, is a powerful alkylating agent that binds to DNA and proteins (Petry et al., 1984, Hincks et al.