Eliminating or significantly decreasing the use of combustible to

Eliminating or significantly decreasing the use of combustible tobacco products would substantially reduce tobacco-caused morbidity and mortality (Zeller, Hatsukami, & Strategic Dialogue on Tobacco Harm Reduction Group, http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Roscovitine.html 2009). One way to achieve this goal is to reduce levels of nicotine in combusted tobacco products to nonreinforcing levels. Such reductions should not be driven by filter ventilation or other changes in cigarette design that can be easily countered by the user, but instead by reducing nicotine exposure. In this review, we emphasize reductions in the nicotine content of the tobacco itself below a threshold level of reinforcement, which would likely substantially decrease the development and level of tobacco dependence and facilitate cessation.

This is in contrast to approaches that set upper limits on machine-delivered nicotine yields but which were intended to remain capable of sustaining addiction (O��Connor, Cummings, Giovino, McNeill, & Kozlowski, 2006). In the United States, a nationwide gradual reduction of the nicotine content in cigarettes was proposed by Benowitz and Henningfield (1994) almost two decades ago. Subsequently, the conclusions by several predominantly U.S. researchers, organizations of scientists, and health professionals concurred that reduction of cigarette nicotine content to nonaddictive levels could have a significant and positive impact on public health (cf. American Medical Association, 1998; Gray et al., 2005; Henningfield et al., 1998; Tengs, Ahmad, Savage, Moore, & Gage, 2005; Zeller, Hatsukami, & Strategic Dialogue on Tobacco Harm Reduction Group, 2009).

With the enactment of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has the authority to reduce nicotine to levels that are nonaddictive, although not to zero, if FDA concludes such a measure ��is appropriate for the protection of the public health.�� Similarly, the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) includes articles that allow governmental agencies to establish standards for nicotine. In meetings held in 2007 and 2009, scientists, tobacco control policy experts, and representatives of U.S. government agencies examined the scientific knowledge and feasibility of this approach. The scientific literature since 1994 was reviewed, presented, and discussed. Based on this discussion, the meeting participants came to the conclusion that actively pursuing research on nicotine reduction would be a highly worthwhile endeavor AV-951 (Hatsukami, Perkins, et al., 2010). The potential feasibility of this approach is particularly supported by studies conducted by Benowitz et al.

Another stated, ��Here��everyone had things in common, but in sch

Another stated, ��Here��everyone had things in common, but in school�� people might think you��re different or strange�� (18-year-old male). For delivering tobacco treatment, eight youth emphasized the value of in-person contacts preferable to phone or selleck chem Internet-delivered interventions. Treatment recommendations did not differ by gender. Treatment Recommendations: Provider Interviews Nearly all the clinicians stated that the risk of tobacco is minimized relative to other drugs of abuse and mental health symptoms, documented in the medical record but rarely addressed (6 clinicians, 15 quotes). An academia-based psychiatrist summarized, ��The tendency is to minimize it and document it as happening but not to actively address it or consider changing that behavior.

We focus more on illicit street drug issues or the alcohol use�� [and] feel that if they��re only smoking tobacco, that��s okay, there are worse things that they can be doing.�� A community-based case manager stated, smoking is ��treated as a fact of life that we work with. We know they��re going to be out front smoking and we put up smoking areas for them.�� At the same time, the clinicians viewed mental health settings as uniquely placed for addressing youth tobacco use. An academia-based psychiatrist asserted, ��In the mental health community, we have the greater awareness of substance use disorders and a better understanding of the psychological underpinnings of substance use and addictions, so I think the milieu would be supportive.

�� The top clinician recommended strategies for treating tobacco dependence in youth were cessation medication, specifically bupropion, nicotine patch, and nicotine gum (7 clinicians, 9 quotes); cessation groups (7 clinicians, 8 quotes); psychoeducation (6 clinicians, 13 quotes); and referrals to community smoking cessation programs (6 clinicians, 8 quotes) (Figure 2b). Additionally, recommended strategies were targeting triggers for smoking, including other substance use (5 clinicians, 10 quotes), providing support (5 clinicians, 6 quotes), cognitive-behavioral strategies (distraction, mindfulness, daily monitoring; 4 clinicians, 10 quotes), parental involvement (4 clinicians, 5 quotes), referrals to primary care (4 clinicians, 4 quotes), encouraging smoking reduction (3 clinicians, 5 quotes), and use of dramatic imagery, such as exposing the youth to smokers with serious tobacco-related health problems (3 clinicians, 4 quotes).

A community-based psychologist summarized, ��Teach them how to manage their anxiety, anger, or their feelings without needing to smoke.�� With regard to parental involvement, a college-based mental health program coordinator emphasized engagement to ��encourage their son or daughter�� providing information to them, maybe attending a Brefeldin_A group with them�� give them tools.

It is noteworthy that most of these studies were performed not in

It is noteworthy that most of these studies were performed not in the context of viral infection, but rather by using transfections of sub-genomic or full-length replicons, as well as cell lines (hepatocytes and non-hepatocyes) over-expressing specific viral proteins. As readouts, these studies used mostly luciferase reporters and were limited to single arms of the UPR. cisplatin synthesis Furthermore, most did not explore downstream targets of UPR activation or stated that disrupted activation of UPR exists [16]�C[18], [20]�C[22]. More recently, induction of ER stress was also demonstrated in the context of the HuH7.5.1 model, a cell culture system which supports a full replication cycle of HCV [23], [24]. All three pathways of the UPR were activated: PERK underwent phosphorylation, ATF6 was cleaved and XBP-1 mRNA was spliced.

However, it was not conclusively shown whether the target genes of the various pathways were correspondingly activated. In contrast, Lerat et al, showed in a transgenic mouse model expressing the full replicon of HCV that ER stress genes are not activated [25]. In addition, Joyce et al, showed that infection of human hepatocytes by HCV in-vivo in the chimeric SCID/Alb-uPA mice resulted in enhanced Bip/Grp78 expression, but no significant activation of UPR target genes [26]. These data may suggest that the UPR was either partially activated or that its downstream signaling was suppressed or kept at a minimal level probably to avoid ER stress-mediated apoptosis. All of the studies were limited to the acute infection soon after virus introduction.

However, chronic infection by HCV, rather than the acute phase is the major component of HCV pathology in humans. In this study we explored whether HCV infection causes chronic long lasting ER stress conditions, and if so, is adaptation to continuous ER stress, which was demonstrated to occur in response to pharmacological ER agents develops. Using the HuH7.5.1 system we demonstrate that HCV induces the UPR in a wave-like fashion, which peaks on days 3�C5 after infection. The UPR then subsides but remains active at Carfilzomib a low level. This chronic ER stress conferred adaptation and resistance to further drug-induced ER stress. Suppression of viral replication using interferon-�� 2a treatment restored UPR responsiveness, indicating that continues presence of the virus is required for adaptation. To address this phenomenon in vivo, we used mice expressing the HCV replicon in their liver (HCV-Tg). These mice displayed basal low level chronic ER stress and adaptation of UPR when administered tunicamycin, an ER stressor. These findings represent a novel mechanism by which chronic HCV infection may disrupt cellular homeostasis. Materials and Methods Cell Culture Huh 7.5.1 cells, a kind gift from Dr.

Beads were washed three times with solution A (in mM: 50 Tris?HCl

Beads were washed three times with solution A (in mM: 50 Tris?HCl, pH 7.4, 100 NaCl, 5 EDTA), two times with solution B (in mM: 50 Tris?HCl, pH 7.4, 500 NaCl), and once with solution selleckchem MG132 C (50 mM Tris?HCl, pH 7.4), each time with recovery by centrifugation at 1,000 g for 1 min. Beads were then heated to 95��C in 2.5�� loading buffer, and the supernatant was subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting as above. Apical Na+/H+ exchange activity in OKP cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was monitored with a computer-controlled spectrofluorometer (��excitation: 500 and 450 nm, ��emission: 530 nm) in cells grown on glass coverslips and loaded with the intracellularly trapped pH-sensitive dye BCECF as described previously (7, 32). Calibration of the 500-to-450 nm fluorescence ratio to pHi was performed with the K+/nigericin method.

Apical Na+/H+ exchange activity was estimated from the initial rate of the Na+-dependent pHi increase after nigericin-induced acid load, in the absence of CO2/HCO3?. Intracellular buffer capacity (��) measured with the NH4Cl pulse method was not significantly different between the different incubation conditions (not shown). Statistics. Statistical analysis was performed with Student’s t-test and ANOVA as specified in Figs. 1�C5. Results are presented graphically as means and SD. For animal experiments, n = 8 per condition unless otherwise noted. Fig. 1. Thiazolidinedione (TZD) treatment reduces plasma and renal lipid abnormalities in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Eight-week-old ZDF rats and lean littermates were treated with TZD for 4 wk.

Plasma free fatty acids (FFA, A) and renal cortical triglyceride … Fig. 5. Effect of rosiglitazone on NHE3 activity in OKP cells. Apical Na+/H+ exchange activity was measured in confluent quiescent OKP cells incubated with vehicle (albumin) or 0.75 mM FFA for 24 h, with addition of rosiglitazone at the indicated concentrations. … RESULTS Effect of TZD on plasma and renal lipid abnormalities in ZDF rats. Compared with their lean littermates, ZDF rats have higher levels of FFA in the plasma and accumulate excess triglycerides in the renal cortex (6). Treatment of ZDF rats with PPAR�� agonists has been shown to reduce plasma FFA (13, 52) and lipid accumulation in the heart, skeletal muscle, and liver (22, 52), but the effect on kidney triglyceride accumulation has not been studied.

ZDF rats treated with TZD for 4 wk gained more weight than untreated ZDF rats, but their average decapsulated kidney weight was not different (Table 1). Treatment with TZD significantly decreased plasma FFA levels and renal cortical triglyceride content in ZDF rats, while having no detectable effect in their lean littermates (Fig. 1). Table 1. Plasma and urinary parameters in ZDF rats with or without TZD treatment Effect Cilengitide of TZD on urinary acidification parameters in ZDF rats.

Those results may suggest that the origin of ID1 expression is no

Those results may suggest that the origin of ID1 expression is not only from cancer cells but also from host cells, such as CPCs in bone marrow and peripheral blood. In summary, we found that the ID1 mRNA expression in bone marrow and peripheral blood ATPase is a reliable predictive marker for lymph node metastasis and peritoneal dissemination, which indicates a poor prognostic outlook in gastric cancer. In addition, our findings suggest that the ID1 expression originates from not only the cancer cells but also the host side progenitor cells with the cancer-bearing condition. Therefore, we propose that targeting the ID1-expressing cells in the bone marrow and/or peripheral blood after surgery represents a new concept for the treatment and/or prevention of metastasis.

Supplementary Material Supplementary Figure 1: Click here for supplemental data(254K, ppt) Supplementary Figure 2: Click here for supplemental data(175K, ppt) Supplementary Figure 3: Click here for supplemental data(162K, ppt) Supplementary Figure 4: Click here for supplemental data(1.2M, ppt) Supplementary Figure Legends: Click here for supplemental data(24K, doc) Acknowledgments We thank T Shimooka, K Ogata, M Kasagi, Y Nakagawa and T Kawano for their technical assistance.

This work was supported in part by the following grants and foundations: CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, grant numbers 17109013, 18659384, 18390367, 18590333, 18015039, 19591509, 19390336, 20390360, 20591547, 20790961 and 20790960; The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, grant number 18015039; Third Term Comprehensive Ten-year Strategy for Cancer Control, grant number 16271201; NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) Technological Development for Chromosome Analysis. Notes Supplementary Information accompanies the paper on British Journal of Cancer website (http://www.nature.com/bjc)
A 39�\year�\old man with a history of recurrent malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the small bowel, treated with imatinib, presented with a 2�\week history of shortness of breath, fluctuating fever, pancytopenia and bilateral airspace opacities. He was treated for pneumonia, but his condition deteriorated and he died 6 weeks after admission.

We present the subsequent postmortem examination findings. Clinical history This is the case of a 39�\year�\old man, with a medical history of malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the small bowel, resected 2.5 years before this episode. Local recurrence and liver metastases occurred 18 months from initial diagnosis. Imatinib AV-951 mesylate 400 mg once daily (Glivec; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) was started, with a good clinical response (including a reduction in tumour size).


Although Pacritinib phase 3 the rate of HBV and/or HCV co-infection in HIV patients varies according to geographic region and various risk groups, there is limited data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with triple infections with HIV/HBV/HCV in an urban clinic population. Therefore, we investigated the co-infection patterns of HBV and HCV among HIV-infected patients coming to a HIV clinic located in New York City, to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with triple infections with HIV/HBV/HCV. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study population We conducted a retrospective chart review of 5639 patients followed in two HIV/AIDS clinics that comprise the Center for Comprehensive Care at St. Luke��s�CRoosevelt Hospital in New York City. The study period was from January 1999 to May 2007.

All patients were HIV-infected and were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HCV antibody, along with demographic characteristics and risk factors for HIV acquisition. Virological assays HIV infection was defined by positivity on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (HIVABTM HIV-1/HIV-2 (rDNA) EIA, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA) and confirmatory Western Blot test (HIV 1/HIV 2 WESTERN BLOT/IMMUNOBLOT, Quest Diagnostics, USA) with viral detection of HIV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Roche HIV-1 Amplicor Monitor , version 1.5, Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland). HCV serology was performed using an ELISA (VITROSR Immunodiagnostics, Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, USA). Positive HCV serology results were confirmed by PCR test [VERSANTR HCV RNA 3.

0 Assay (bDNA); Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, USA]. HBV serology was performed using ELISA (VITROSR Immunodiagnostics, Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics). HIV/HBV, HIV/HCV, and HIV/HBV/HCV co-infections were defined as positive HIV and HBV serology, positive HIV and HCV serology, and positive HIV and HBV AV-951 and HCV serology results, respectively. Statistical analysis The tables describe the distribution of co-infections among HIV-infected patients according to several characteristics. The ��2 test was performed in order to investigate the association between the presence of HIV/HBV/HCV co-infections and demographic variables. The Fisher exact test was used where applicable. In order to identify factors associated with HIV/HBV, HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV/HCV co-infections, three multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The level of statistical significance was fixed at P = 0.05. The statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software SPSS 15.0 for Windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA).


Eleven Seliciclib genes (Bcat2, Ddx54, Efnb2, Prickle2, Ptpro, Srms, Tcf4, Tnk2, Trio, Wscd1, and Zscan22), identified from unique RAMs, were observed in both groups of mice (Table 3). Five genes were identified from RAMs whose methylation statuses either clearly increase (Bcat2: M464-468 and Zscan22: H238�C239) or clearly decrease (Ddx54:B312-315, Ptpro: B341�C342 and Wscd1: M358�C359) in both the B6C3F1 and CAR WT mice. Three genes were identified from RAMs whose methylation statuses are clearly opposite (e.g., increases in one group and decreases in another) in at least 1 B6C3F1 group and one CAR WT group: Ddx54 (M315-317), Tcf4 (H200) and Tnk2 (M275�C276). Prickle2 (B310-312), and Tcf4 (B200) were identified from RAMs in the B6C3F1 whose methylation statuses increase at 2 weeks, decrease at 4 weeks, and either increase (Tcf4) or decrease (Prickle2) in the CAR tumor tissue.

Wscd1 (B357�C358) was identified from RAMs in the CAR precancerous and tumor tissue whose methylation statuses increase and decrease, respectively, and also increase in the B6C3F1 at 4 weeks. Finally, Efnb2 (M564�C566), Prickle2 (H310-312), Ptpro (H340�C343), Srms (M202�C206), and Trio (M564�C566) were identified from a RAM in at least one group whose methylation status is unclear after ��combining�� multiple RAMs (i.e., two RAMs formed in the same group and the methylation changes are opposite in direction), and thus, it is uncertain whether the altered methylation patterns
Rotavirus can lead to severe life-threatening gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide.

Unlike many other enteropathogens, rotavirus affects children in both developed and developing countries (1-2) and is not associated with socioeconomic factors. However, the risk of dying from severe rotavirus-associated infection is higher in lower-income countries due to various factors, including limited access to healthcare facilities, malnutrition, earlier onset of infection, and mixed infections involving rotavirus and other pathogens. Rotavirus infects most children by three years of age, and prevention of rotavirus spread is virtually impossible, even in environments with the highest hygiene measures Dacomitinib (2). Improvements in the availability of safe water and sanitation, access to oral rehydration therapy, and higher vaccine coverage have reduced the overall burden of gastroenteritis in children (3-4). From 1980 to 2002, Brazil showed a decrease by 91.5% in mortality due to gastroenteritis among children aged less than five years (3-4). During the same period, the proportion of infant deaths attributed to gastroenteritis fell from 41% to 4.7%, but with a range of 2.1% in the Southeast region to 7.8% in the Northeast (3-4). Infant mortality decreased from 85.2 per 1,000 children in 1980 to 25.

49, SE = 0 84; male mean = 1 53, SE = 0 63) Furthermore, there w

49, SE = 0.84; male mean = 1.53, SE = 0.63). Furthermore, there were no significant main or interactive effects of gender or mood condition on cravings to smoke. Figure 2. Latency to smoke by mood condition and gender. *p table 1 < .05. Discussion The purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate the role of gender in smoking behavior subsequent to the implicit induction of negative affect. Compared with males, female smokers began smoking more quickly following the negative mood induction. Previous research has shown that women are more likely to report smoking to reduce negative affect (Cepeda-Benito & Reig-Ferrer, 2000; Rundmo et al., 1997) and the belief that smoking will reduce negative affect (Brandon & Baker, 1991).

The current study suggests that the stronger relationship for women between negative affect relief and smoking occurs in response to subtle increases in negative affect. No effects of gender were found for the number of cigarettes smoked following the negative mood induction. This result may have been related to the fixed duration of the ad libitum smoking period. It is also possible that women respond to negative affect by increasing the intensity of their smoking rather than the amount of smoking. Additional research, including studies of smoking topography, is needed to further understand how men and women differ in their smoking-related response to negative affect. There were no differences following the manipulation in cravings to smoke by condition or gender.

As we were interested in the maintenance of smoking behavior, participants were only deprived of smoking for 1 hr, and we did not expect to see large increases in cravings to smoke during that time. A number of limitations should be noted. First, adults in the sample were primarily Caucasian, young, and smoked a little less than a pack of cigarettes per day. Findings AV-951 may not generalize to other groups of smokers. Second, all female participants were premenopausal and in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Differences in affect-related smoking by menstrual cycle phase or menopause status could not be examined. Third, laboratory studies have the potential for context and demand effects; however, the setting also provides the opportunity to study behavior that would be extremely difficult to examine outside of a controlled environment. Additional strengths of the study include the use of a subtle mood induction, standardization of the time since last cigarette, and the stratification by gender to conditions. In conclusion, this study highlighted gender differences in mood-related maintenance of smoking behavior.

This is an important possibility that deserves further investigat

This is an important possibility that deserves further investigation. It should be noted selleck kinase inhibitor that nicotine patch treatment significantly reduced negative affective symptoms during smoking cessation in this study (Gilbert et al., 2009), indicating that other factors could have attenuated the craving-suppressing effects of NRT. Craving has been thought to be one key motivational factor for former smokers to lapse/relapse after abstinence (Drummond, 2001; Killen & Fotmann, 1997; Shiffman et al., 1997). In relation to recent evidence for female A1 carriers being less likely to be abstinent after NRT (Munaf��, Johnstone, et al., 2009), our observation that A1 carriers experienced stronger craving for smoking not only during initial days of abstinence but also persistently during the last 2-week+ phase of the 6-week study period suggests that the link between the A1 genotype and poorer smoking cessation outcome may be, at least partially, mediated by craving.

However, more work is needed to answer this question, as the overall evidence supporting the association of the TaqIA polymorphism and smoking behavior including treatment outcome remains equivocal (for a review, see Munaf��, Timpson, et al., 2009). From yet another perspective, unlike broad measures of smoking behavior such as smoking status, smoking rate, and abstinence rate, which presumably are determined by multiple factors including multiple genes, craving can be viewed as a more specific phenotype that is closely related to the TaqIA polymorphism.

The current finding highlights the possibility that this genetic variant Entinostat may be mostly associated with treatment outcome in cases where craving is a crucial trigger for relapse. Effects on smoking for pleasure Despite the well-established role of the mesolimbic DA system in acute positive reinforcing effects of nicotine as well as other drugs, we found significant differences in smoking for pleasure-seeking between only A1 carriers and A2/A2 female smokers, with the former group reporting a higher probability of smoking for this purpose. If validated in future studies, the lack of effects of the TaqIA variant on smoking for pleasure in men may provide some support for the incentive sensitization (IS) theory of drug craving (Berridge, 2007; Robinson & Berridge, 1993). Evidence favoring IS theory suggests that DA is neither necessary nor sufficient to mediate hedonic liking for sensory pleasures. Instead, the DA system is thought to contribute causally to IS, a process in which stimuli or cues associated with drug use are attributed incentive salience, that is, rewarding properties that make these stimuli attractive and wanted.

Therefore, we focused on ribozyme-based functional screening Rib

Therefore, we focused on ribozyme-based functional screening. Ribozymes are small catalytic RNA molecules comprising target recognition sequences and a catalytic center with RNase activity. Ribozyme libraries have been used to identify genes that are associated with several pathways [12]. Additionally, OZ1, a vector containing a ribozyme targeting selleckchem the reading frames of HIV-1, was used in a clinical trial [13]. In the present study, we hypothesized that if the genes sensitizing HCC cells to 5-FU are identified, they could be applied to IFN-��/5-FU therapy and used as prognostic markers. To confirm this hypothesis, we used ribozymes to perform reverse genetics-based functional screening to identify genes that augment the efficacy of IFN-��/5-FU therapy.

Materials and Methods Ethics Statement All animal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Tottori University (the permit number: 10-Y-54). The mice received humane care in accordance with the study guidelines for the care and use established by the Tottori University. All mice were kept under pathogen-free conditions and were maintained in a temperature-controlled room with a 12 h light/dark illumination cycle. Materials and Cell Culture IFN-�� and 5-FU were provided by MSD (Tokyo, Japan) and Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan), respectively. HepG2, HuH7, and HLF human HCC cells were obtained from the Japanese Collection of Research Bioresources and maintained in Dulbecco��s modified Eagle��s medium (Nissui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

, Tokyo, Japan) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (MBL, Nagoya, Japan), L-glutamine, and glucose in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 at 37��C. The Water Soluble Tetrazolium Salt (WST) Assay The IFN-�� and 5-FU antitumor effects were assessed using the WST assay (Seikagaku Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The cells were cultured in various concentrations of IFN-�� and 5-FU for 72 h. The viability of cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide was defined as 100%. Screening for Genes Involved in Enhancing the Effect of 5-FU We constructed a plasmid DNA (pDNA) library expressing ribozyme genes (Figure S1 and Table S1). Screening was performed on the basis of the ability of 5-FU to eliminate cells expressing ribozymes that target unrelated chemosensitive genes, as described in File S1.

Subcutaneous Xenograft Model in Mice Four-week-old male non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice were purchased from Charles River Laboratories Japan, Inc. (Kanagawa, Japan). We subcutaneously transplanted 6.8��106 cells HepG2 cells in 0.1 mL PBS into the right flank of each mouse. The mice were randomly assigned to the 4 following groups; (i) Brefeldin_A LacZ-adenovirus and PBS (instead of IFN-�� and 5-FU); (ii) LacZ-adenovirus and IFN-��/5-FU; (iii) TGFBR2-adenovirus and IFN-��/5-FU; and (iv) EXT1-adenovirus and IFN-��/5-FU.