, 1994) and OA (Hassan et al , 2001) subjects compared to healthy

, 1994) and OA (Hassan et al., 2001) subjects compared to healthy controls, as well

as an association between this website injury risk and core proprioception in athletes (Zazulak et al., 2007). These findings have highlighted the significance of reduced proprioception and how it may contribute to disease progression. Proprioception involves a complex interplay between central processing, peripheral proprioceptive receptors and the activation of specific muscles (Hassan et al., 2001). It is a vital feedback mechanism that allows the body to perceive where limbs are positioned and initiates appropriate muscle recruitment to ensure posture is maintained. It has been suggested that the defect in collagen and resulting ligament laxity not only increases the range of movement of a joint, but leads to the adoption of hyperextended postures as a result of decreased stability (Hall et al., 1995). It could be speculated that the resultant repeated trauma and wear from these abnormal postures may be the cause of increased

OA incidence within the BJHS population. Treatment options for BJHS patients have been given little attention and, as a result, patients are often left untreated. Physiotherapy as a treatment has been explored with some success. The aim of such treatments is to strengthen supporting muscles, which is thought to increase proprioceptive acuity. The idea comes from the observation that BJHS is widely seen in ballet dancers (Klemp et al., 1984), yet proprioception does not appear selleck chemicals llc to be effected (Barrack et al., 1984). Both treatment and research in BJHS has to date focussed on the structures immediately surrounding the affected joint. However the thorax, trunk and lower limbs are a dynamic structure, and should be treated as such rather than considering each joint in isolation. Recently, the spine has been

modelled as an inverted pendulum supported by a moving base (the lower limbs) (McGregor and Hukins, 2009). This model can be extended to suggest that the hip, knee and ankle joints are also moving Sclareol bases that support the back, upper leg and lower leg respectively. It is thought that problems at a specific joint could be the result of problems that lie elsewhere in this dynamic structure. Indeed, injury risk in sports participants has been associated with both lumbopelvic movement control (Roussel et al., 2009) and core proprioception (Zazulak et al., 2007), and this might explain how instabilities at joints lead to musculoskeletal injuries and conditions such as LBP and OA. Recently specific attention has been given to the hip musculature; specifically gluteus medius in people with osteoarthritis affecting their knee joint (Chang et al., 2005 and Henriksen et al., 2009). It has been proposed that weakness in GM results in contralateral pelvic drop in these subjects and increased loading on the medial knee joint (Chang et al., 2005).

, 2006) Residence time is important in the drying, because, it d

, 2006). Residence time is important in the drying, because, it determines the relation between materials degradation with drying conditions (Adamiec, Kaminski, Markowski, & Strumillo, 1995, chapter 25). The outlet air drying temperature is a key control variable to obtain the optimal product quality (Benali & Amazouz, 2006). In this work, residence time was considered since the beginning of the operation until the equipment enters into

the regime. The stable spouted regime is found when the outlet of air drying temperature becomes Selleck PS-341 constant. Fig. 1 shows outlet air drying temperature for both geometries in all inlet air temperatures. In Fig. 1 it can be observed that residence time of chitosan paste in the bed was approximately 15 min in all experiments. The residence time values obtained in this work were in the range with HSP inhibitor those found by Tacon and Freitas (2007), from 12.2 to 17.7 min, in spouted bed drying of pastes. The outlet air drying temperatures had a similar

behavior in both geometries (Fig. 1). An increase in inlet air temperature from 90 °C to 100 °C caused an increase in outlet air temperature from 72 ± 1 °C to 84 ± 1 °C, and a new increase in inlet air temperature to 110 °C increased outlet air temperature to 91 ± 1 °C. Chitosan is a carbohydrate and is largely affected by temperature, being that outlet air drying temperature higher than 80 °C is not appropriate, because its polymerization may occur. Therefore, the experiments with inlet air drying temperature of 100 °C and 110 °C do not assure chitosan quality. Table 1 shows the influence of temperature and geometry in accumulated mass (AC) and product recovery (R). In Table 1 it can be observed that the temperature increase caused an increase in accumulated mass and decrease in product recovery (p ≤ 0.05), in addition, it can be observed that conical-cylindrical

spouted bed showed higher values of accumulated mass and lower values of product recovery (p ≤ 0.05). The dependence of product recovery and accumulated mass in relation to temperature occurred because polyethylene inert can present modifications, Bay 11-7085 because their melting point is 130 °C. So, the adhesion forces in the bed are increased, harming the film break and powder drag, and increasing the accumulated mass and decreasing product recovery. In relation to geometry influence, the slot-rectangular spouted bed showed higher values of product recovery and lower values of accumulated mass. This occurred because the higher air drying velocity in slot-rectangular spouted bed caused increase in the particle motion inside the bed, increasing the attrition effect, contributing to the removal of the dried product from the spouted bed dryer. Similar behavior was obtained by Souza and Oliveira (2009) in drying of herbal extract in a draft-tube spouted bed.

, 2000, Gainotti, 2000 and Pulvermüller, Lutzenberger et al , 199

, 2000, Gainotti, 2000 and Pulvermüller, Lutzenberger et al., 1999). Therefore, although noun/verb dissociations in patient populations and differential brain activation to these categories have been reported in the studies above, it is unclear to what degree such dissociation depends on linguistic and semantic features of these word groups. In an attempt to take these confounds into consideration, Bedny et al. (2008) focused on nouns and verbs varying in semantic features, especially in their semantic relationship to motion

perception. We would like to consider these findings in detail as, despite a similar design, Bedny and colleagues’ stimulus selection along with their results dramatically differ from those reported here. Contrary to previous studies (Martin et al. 1996), these authors reported that activity in middle temporal regions close to motion-sensitive Selleck STA-9090 areas “responded preferentially to verbs relative to nouns, even when the nouns have higher visual-motion properties” (than verbs) (p. 11352) and hence suggested that “concepts… are organised according to conceptual

(lexical) properties” (p. 11347). In their attempt to tease apart lexical and semantic factors, these authors controlled semantic aspects related to visually perceived motion, grouping together animal nouns and action verbs as “high motion” items in spite of their fundamental differences with regard to a range of semantic dimensions. This neglect and lack of control for semantic aspects of Carnitine dehydrogenase verb and Selleckchem LDK378 noun stimuli is a major shortcoming, as previous work has documented brain activation differences

related to semantic action- vs. object-relatedness, manipulability of referent objects of nouns, or action-relatedness of verbs (see next section; Brambati et al., 2006, Damasio et al., 2001, Martin and Weisberg, 2003, Pulvermüller et al., 2009 and Tranel et al., 2005). Bedny’s comparison of “high-motion” noun and verb categories, namely animal names and action verbs (such as “sheep” vs. ”grasp”), is problematic, as we have demonstrated in previous work that many animal words lack action-semantic links and, correspondingly, fail to elicit action-related brain activity, whereas action verbs, which represent the prototype of action-related lexical materials, activate cortical motor systems along with middle-temporal cortex (Moseley et al., 2012). It has indeed been suggested that the middle-temporal activation might reflect visual motion processing, but there is so far no firm proof for this hypothesis and general action-relatedness provides at least one alternative cognitive-semantic feature that may be reflected (Kiefer et al. 2012). Because likely semantic determinants of their middle-temporal activations were not sufficiently documented, the noun/verb difference in brain activation observed by Bedny et al. cannot be seen as unrelated to semantics. With greater control of semantic stimulus properties related to action and perception, our present findings as summarised in Fig.

They are regulated by covalent modifications of the genomic DNA,

They are regulated by covalent modifications of the genomic DNA, particularly methylation at carbon-5 of cytosine residues located CHIR 99021 in the CpG islands, and post-translational modifications of histones. A number of exogenous factors can influence the cellular epigenetics and cause heritable changes in gene expression without changing the genomic DNA sequence by manipulating the cellular DNA methylation patterns. Results from a number of studies have established an association between DNA methylation and environmental metals including cadmium, lead, nickel, and arsenic [1] and [2]. In addition, environmental chemicals such as trichloroethylene, dichloroacetic acid,

trichloroacetic acid, benzene, etc. can also influence epigenetics by changing the DNA methylation [3], [4] and [5]. Eukaryotic histones, around which the genomic DNA is wrapped, also undergo extensive post-translational modifications which regulate epigenetics by controlling the accessibility and usage of the genomic DNA. As a result, histone modifying enzymes, specifically

those that modulate acetylation PD0325901 concentration and methylation, play a vital role in the transcriptional regulation of genes. Histones are methylated on the lysine or arginine residues. The predominant sites of lysine methylation include histone-3 lysine-4 (H3-K4), H3-K9, H3-K27, H3-K36, H3-K79 and H4-K20 [6]. For a long time, histone methylation marks were considered to be static. However, identification of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, which can only demethylate mono- and di-methylated H3-K4 and H3-K9) and a number of Jumonji (Jmj) domain containing iron (II), 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent histone lysine demethylases (KDMs, which can even demethylate tri-methylated lysine residues of histone) have added a new dimension to the dynamic epigenetic regulation

[7]. Despite a number of studies showing clear links between environmental factors and DNA methylation, little is known about the effect of environmental Hydroxychloroquine manufacturer factors on histone lysine methylation. Prohexadione (3,5-dioxo-4-propionylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) and trinexapac [4-(cyclopropylhydroxymethylene)-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid] are plant growth regulators (PGRs) of the acylcyclohexanediones class. Trinexapac-ethyl (an ester form, also known as Primo/Cimectacarb/Cimetacarb) is one of the most commonly used PGR on fine turf surfaces throughout the world; while prohexadione-calcium (a salt form, also known as Apogee/Baseline) inhibits the synthesis of gibberellins, a naturally occurring plant hormone, and is a widely used chemical for controlling vegetative growth. It is also sprayed on apple and pear leaves, which inhibits flavanone 3β-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase resulting in changes in the flavonoid spectrum.

3a and c) However, since the main goal is to discriminate pure a

3a and c). However, since the main goal is to discriminate pure and adulterated coffee, an evaluation

of the calculated values of each discriminant function at the group centroids ( Table 3) shows that, depending on the model, the first three discriminant functions are enough to provide sample classification. For example, in the model based on first derivatives, pure coffee presented positive www.selleckchem.com/products/SP600125.html values for DF2 and negative values for DF1 and DF3, whereas adulterated samples presented positive values for DF2 and DF3 and negative values for DF1. All models presented 100% recognition and prediction abilities when employing 5 discriminant functions. Such results confirm that DRIFTS provides satisfactory discrimination between roasted coffee and adulterants, being able to differentiate between pure coffee and coffee adulterated by one or several of the materials commonly employed for it. This is particularly interesting in terms of establishing a fast and reliable methodology for detection of adulteration in ground roasted coffee. As in our previous study ( Reis et al., 2013), we emphasize that the analysis has been carried out using a representative range of roasting conditions, and that variations learn more in roasting degree and temperature did not affect discrimination. The feasibility of employing

DRIFTS as a methodology for simultaneous discrimination between roasted coffee and multiple adulterants (coffee husks, spent coffee grounds, barley and corn) was confirmed. LDA classification models presented recognition and prediction abilities of 100%, being able to detect adulteration levels as low as 1 g/100 g. The results herein obtained confirm that DRIFTS can be employed for detection of adulteration in roasted and ground coffee. The authors acknowledge financial support from the following Brazilian Government Agencies:CAPES, CNPq the and FAPEMIG. “
“Events Date and Venue Details from Cereals and Europe Spring Meeting 29-31 May 2013 Leuven, Belgium Internet:

http://cespringmeeting2013.org 17th Gums & Stabilisers for the Food Industry Conference 25-28 June 2013 Wrexham, UK Internet: http://www.foodhydrocolloidstrust.org.uk/ Australian Society for Microbiology Annual Meeting 7-10 July 2013 Adelaide, Australia Internet: http://www.theasm.org.au/meetings/asm-adelaide-2013/ American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting 8-12 July 2013 Indianapolis, USA Internet: http://jtmtg.org/2013/ IFT Annual Meeting 13-16 July 2013 Chicago, USA Internet: www.ift.org FEMS 2013 21-25 July 2013 Leipzig, Germany Internet: http://fems.kenes.com/congress-information/welcome/ International Association of Food Protection Annual Meeting 28-31 July 2013 Charlotte, North Carolina, USA Internet: www.foodprotection.org 10th Pangborn Sensory Science Symposium 10-13 August 2013 Rio di Janeiro, Brazil Internet: http://www.pangborn2013.

Somatostatin (growth-inhibiting hormone) is a cyclic tetradecapep

Somatostatin (growth-inhibiting hormone) is a cyclic tetradecapeptide

overexpressed in a variety of neoplastic tumours, but has a short natural lifetime. Analogues such as octreotate (tate) a cyclic octapeptide, possess longer lifetimes owing to the presence of D-amino acids. Gaviglio et al. have prepared four conjugates of a PtIV-succinato complex (10, as a CDDP prodrug) with both pNT and tate peptides ( Figure 3a). All four conjugates (31-35) displayed similar IC50 values to that of the precursor in the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Additionally, in the HepG2 human hepatocytes and PT45 pancreatic cell lines, the presence of an extra tate residue (35) did not enhance interaction with the SSTR2 receptor [ 36••]. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are another well-known class of drug carriers due to their ability to pass through cell membranes. The TAT Autophagy inhibitor peptide is a widely studied CPP. Conjugates of the TAT peptide (YGRKKRRQRRR) with a PtIV analogue of oxaliplatin generated complexes (36 and 37, Figure 3b)

were >4× more potent in ovarian, colon and lung cancer cells lines than the free PtIV analogues of oxaliplatin. The diconjugate 37 displayed slightly lower cytotoxicity, indicating that an extra TAT peptide does not enhance the cytotoxicity [37]. Integrins, MAPK inhibitor heterodimeric cell-adhesion proteins associated with tumour angiogenesis and metastasis, are upregulated in tumour cells compared to low levels in normal endothelial cells. Polymer NPs with a PtIV cisplatin

prodrug (38, Figure 3c) encapsulated in the core and targeted to αvβ3 integrin-expressing cells using the cyclic pentapeptide c(RGDfk) (38) showed a 6-fold enhancement in the in vitro cytotoxicity towards MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines compared to CDDP. In vivo studies revealed equivalent tumour growth inhibition (ca. 60%) by both 38 and cisplatin in mice bearing A2780 xenografts [ 38••]. The Warburg effect, the ability of http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/Metformin-hydrochloride(Glucophage).html cancer cells to produce energy through a high rate of glycolysis, helps tumours cells survive. The FDA-approved anticancer agent dichloroacetate (DCA) can reverse the Warburg effect. The PtIV prodrug Mitaplatin (39) contains two DCA units, and once internalised is reduced to cisplatin which can attack nuclear DNA, while the DCA can attack mitochondria selectively. Mitaplatin alters the mitochondrial membrane potential of cancer cells, promoting apoptosis by releasing cytochrome c and translocating apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria to the nucleus. The cytotoxicity of 39 is equivalent or exceeds most well-known PtIV complexes and is comparable to CDDP [39•]. Phase I, II and III trials of Lipoplatin™ (composed of 8.9% cisplatin and 91.1% lipids, w/w, with an average diameter of 110 nm) have reported no renal toxicity. Stathopoulos et al. have investigated the use of lipoplatin as both a mono-therapy and in combination with taxanes in cancer patients with renal insufficiency.

However, coleoptile and root length did not vary significantly af

However, coleoptile and root length did not vary significantly after BR treatment ( Fig. 3-A, B and C). A more sensitive method, lamina joint inclination assay [30], was used to examine sensitivity of gsor300084 to BL. In the absence of BL, the bending angle of the leaf blade in gsor300084 was smaller than that in wild-type plants ( Fig. 4-A, B). In the presence of 1 μmol L− 1 BL, the leaf angle increased dramatically in the wild type but remained almost unchanged in the gsor300084 mutant ( Fig. 4-A, B). This result further confirmed that gsor300084 mutant seedlings were less sensitive to exogenous

BL than wild-type seedlings. Primary mapping using 20 F2 mutant individuals derived from a cross between gsor300084 and the indica variety Dular EX 527 chemical structure revealed that the mutation resided on the long arm of

chromosome 1 between the InDel markers R1–12 and R1–13 ( Fig. 5-A and Table 2). Fine Fluorouracil price mapping using 7 new inDel markers and 358 F2 mutant individuals narrowed the location to a 107 kb region. According to the MSU Rice Genome Annotation Project (http://rice.plantbiology.msu.edu/), the D61 gene (LOC_Os01g52050) encoding the putative BR receptor OsBRI1 is located within this region. Accordingly, the genomic DNA fragment of the D61 gene from both gsor300084 and Matsumae was amplified and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that only the 1330th base in the D61 coding region was changed from T to A, causing the 444th amino Cyclooxygenase (COX) acid tryptophan (W) to be substituted by arginine (R). This mutation was located in the LRR region of OsBRI1 and adjacent to the island domain ( Fig. 5-A). Sequence alignment among BRI1 orthologs from different plant species revealed that this mutation site is highly conserved ( Fig. 5-B), indicating that this residue is important for BRI1 protein function. Although leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) are frequently involved in protein–protein interactions, a previous

study had shown that mutations in the LRR domain led to changed protein subcellular localization [31]. We accordingly wondered whether the W444R substitution has any effects on the subcellular localization of OsBRI1. The wild-type and gsor300084 mutant allele of the D61 gene fused in-frame with the sGFP gene was transformed into rice protoplasts. Fig. 6 presents a confocal microscopy analysis of OsBRI1 expression, showing that OsBRI1::GFP fluorescence is localized to the cell surface. Thus the OsBRI1-directed GFP fluorescence is at the cell wall or plasma membrane but not in the cytoplasm. Since the cell wall has been removed during the preparation of protoplasts from rice seedlings, OsBRI1 should be localized at the plasma membrane. This result is consistent with the subcellular localization analysis of the Arabidopsis BRI1 protein, in which a plasmolysis experiment confirmed that BRI1 was localized at the plasma membrane rather than at the cell wall [24] and [26].

Do kolonizacji dochodzi w ciągu kilku pierwszych dni suplementacj

Do kolonizacji dochodzi w ciągu kilku pierwszych dni suplementacji, jednak po jej zaprzestaniu liczba bakterii w przewodzie pokarmowym zmniejsza się do niskich wartości w ciągu kilku miesięcy [9]. Suplementacja podczas ostatnich tygodni ciąży oraz u matek karmiących powoduje wzrost liczby L. reuteri w ich mleku [10, 11]. W późnych latach 80. wykazano, że L. reuteri na drodze fermentacji Nutlin3a glicerolu produkuje substancję o właściwościach antybiotyku, którą nazwano reuteryną [12]. Nowe wyniki badań wyjaśniają genetyczne uwarunkowania produkcji reuteryny [13]. Hamuje ona wzrost niektórych bakterii Gram-dodatnich i Gram-ujemnych, grzybów i pierwotniaków [14]. Zauważono, że potrzeba znacznie większej

jej ilości dla inhibicji tzw. „dobroczynnych” bakterii przewodu pokarmowego niż dla inhibicji patogenów. To pozwala L. reuteri na modyfikowanie składu flory bakteryjnej w taki sposób, Dabrafenib cost że hamuje ona wzrost patogenów, nie powodując przy tym redukcji flory fizjologicznej [15, 16]. Wśród patogenów, przeciw którym reuteryna jest skuteczna, wymienia się enteropatogenne E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shigella spp., Campylobacter

jejuni, Strepotococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Candida albicans, Fusarium samiaciens, Aspergillus flavus [15, 16]. L. reuteri produkuje także kwaśne metabolity (kwas mlekowy) o aktywności przeciwzakaźnej. Ma zdolność do supresji produkcji niektórych cytokin, np. TNF poprzez wpływ

na aktywowane przez LPS monocyty [17]. Produkuje także kobalaminę [13, 18, 19]. Głównym kierunkiem badań nad zastosowaniem L. reuteri w medycynie są choroby przewodu pokarmowego. W badaniach prowadzonych in vitro na tkankach zwierzęcych wykazano, że L. reuteri indukuje supresję reakcji zapalnych, poprzez ingerencję w układ cytokin, w obrębie oxyclozanide komórek przewodu pokarmowego, przy czym w przypadku różnych odmian tej bakterii ingerencja w procesy zapalne może się odbywać w inny sposób [20]. Nie wykazano, by którakolwiek z odmian L. reuteri wywierała efekt cytotoksyczny w stosunku do komórek przewodu pokarmowego. W ostrej biegunce zmienia się ekosystem mikrobiontów przewodu pokarmowego: dochodzi do zmniejszenia ilości bakterii, takich jak: Lactobacillus, Bacteroides czy Bifidobacterium. Probiotyki mogą modulować te zmiany wpływając na przebieg biegunki. Chmielewska i wsp. [21] oceniali skuteczność i bezpieczeństwo podaży Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 w przebiegu ostrej biegunki u dzieci, na podstawie metaanalizy randomizowanych badań klinicznych. Do analizy włączono ostatecznie 2 badania, obejmujące łącznie 106 dzieci. Stwierdzono, że podawanie L. reuteri ma związek z krótszym czasem trwania biegunki, mniejszym ryzykiem oddawania wodnistych stolców w 1., 2., 3. i 4. dniu leczenia.

, Scottsdale, AZ, USA) and a 25-hydroxyvitamin D RIA kit (Diasori

, Scottsdale, AZ, USA) and a 25-hydroxyvitamin D RIA kit (Diasorin S.p.A., Saluggia [Vercelli], Italy). Areal BMD (aBMD) of the lumbar spine (L1–L4) and right proximal femur (total hip)

were measured by DXA (QDR 2000 plus; Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) at baseline and at month 6 (experiment 1) or Selleckchem Alpelisib at months 3 and 6 (experiment 2). The coefficient of variation of DXA scanning with repositioning ranged from 0.8% for lumbar spine aBMD to 4.5% for femoral neck aBMD. pQCT (XCT Research SA +; Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Germany) was used to measure volumetric bone mineral content (vBMC) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the right tibia at baseline and at month 6 (experiment 1) or at months 3 and 6 (experiment 2). Metaphyseal data were generated as an average from 3 scans separated by 0.5 mm at the tibia/fibula junction (contour mode 2: threshold 0.446 cm− 1; peelmode 2: threshold 0.550 cm− 1). A diaphyseal scan was taken at approximately 12% of the bone length (peelmode 2, cortmode 2: threshold 0.930 cm− 1) toward the center of the tibia from the metaphyseal scans. Gefitinib Nominal voxel size was 0.35 mm. The coefficient of variation of pQCT

scanning with repositioning was 0.2% to 1.1% at the proximal tibia across all variables obtained at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites. L2 vertebrae and right proximal femurs were collected for bone histomorphometric analysis. Each animal was injected with 8 mg/kg of calcein subcutaneously, 15 days and 5 days prior to termination. All bone samples were fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin for 3 days and transferred to 70% ethanol. Bones were then trimmed, Ribonucleotide reductase dehydrated, and embedded in methyl methacrylate. Trabecular bone sections were prepared in the frontal plane for the femur neck, and in the sagittal plane for the L2 vertebral body. Dynamic histomorphometry was performed on 7 μm-thick unstained sections, while 5 μm-thick sections were stained with Goldner’s trichrome for static parameters and with toluidine blue for wall thickness (W.Th).

Cortical bone histomorphometry was performed on 2 unstained transverse sections at the femur diaphysis, ground to 20–40 μm in thickness. Measurements were collected with a Bioquant image analyzer (Bioquant Image Analysis Corporation, Nashville, TN, USA) linked with an Olympus BX-60 microscope (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with bright and epifluorescence illumination Static and dynamic parameters were measured and reported as outlined by the ASBMR histomorphometry nomenclature committee [18]. Bone biomechanical testing was performed with an MTS 858 Mini Bionix servohydraulic test system (TestResources Inc., Shakopee, MN, USA), and data was collected using Testworks (v3.8A) for Teststar II (v.4.0c) software.

For example, The Framingham Heart Study showed that higher BMI is

For example, The Framingham Heart Study showed that higher BMI is associated with lower cognitive performance (learning, memory, and executive function) in elderly individuals (Elias et al., 2003). Moreover, in a smaller cohort of elderly patients, Cattin et al. reported that cognitive impairment decreases with increasing BMI (Cattin et al., 1997). In contrast, Kuo et al. found that although

elderly obese (assessed by BMI) individuals did not demonstrate compelling superiority in memory compared with normal-weight individuals, they demonstrated better performance in visuospatial speed of processing (Kuo et al., 2006). Furthermore, West et al. showed an inverse association between BMI and rate of cognitive impairment (West and Haan, 2009). The reasons for the discrepancies between these studies are PLX4032 unclear, however, it is noteworthy that the battery of cognitive tests used in these studies varied considerably in terms of the breadth of domains tested and the stringency of tests employed. Thus, this may make it difficult to compare their findings. Additionally, it is well known that aging is associated with changes in body composition, including an increase in fat

mass and a decline in muscle mass (sarcopenia). Thus, the mixed findings may reflect the difficulties in defining obesity in elderly cohorts based on anthropomorphic measurements such as BMI. Indeed, using waist circumference as a OSBPL9 measure of central obesity, West et al. revealed that obesity is associated with an increased rate of cognitive impairment LY2835219 mouse in non-demented elderly individuals while BMI in the same cohort was inversely associated (West and Haan, 2009). In addition to its effect on cognitive performance, growing evidence indicates that obesity may influence brain structure. Indeed, current literature suggests

that obesity is associated with brain atrophy (Enzinger et al., 2005, Ward et al., 2005, Taki et al., 2008, Raji et al., 2010, Fotuhi et al., 2012 and Brooks et al., 2013). For example, higher BMI and waist circumference are linked with lower total brain volume in non-demented elderly patients (∼75 years) (Enzinger et al., 2005, Raji et al., 2010, Fotuhi et al., 2012 and Brooks et al., 2013). Similarly, in a cohort of younger adults (mean age 54 years) BMI was inversely associated with global brain volume, even after adjusting for age and a number of cardiovascular risk factors such as systolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels (Liang et al., 2014). A negative relationship between regional brain atrophy and obesity has also been described (Jagust et al., 2005, Pannacciulli et al., 2006, Taki et al., 2008 and Raji et al., 2010). In particular, the temporal (including the hippocampus) and frontal lobes appear to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of obesity.