Therefore, MGSNs are of great potential as a multifunctional nano

Therefore, MGSNs are of great potential as a multifunctional nanoplatform for MR-SERS bimodal imaging-guided, focused photothermal tumor

therapy. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders of the nervous system that mostly lead to a progressive loss of neural cells. A major challenge in studying the molecular pathomechanisms underlying these disorders is the limited experimental access to disease-affected human nervous system tissue. In addition, considering that the molecular selleck chemicals disease initiation occurs years or decades before the symptomatic onset of a medical condition, these tissues mostly reflect only the final phase of the disease. To overcome these limitations, various model systems have been established based on gain- and loss-of-function studies in transformed cell

lines or transgenic animal models. Although these approaches provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms and development they often lack physiological protein expression levels Selleck Ricolinostat and a humanized context of molecular interaction partners. The generation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells from somatic cells provides access to virtually unlimited numbers of patient-specific cells for modeling neurological disorders in vitro. In this review, we focus on the current progress made in hiPS cell-based modeling of neurodegenerative diseases and discuss recent

advances in the quality assessment of hiPS cell lines.”
“Critical AZD1390 tests were performed in 2011 in four weanling horses (L-1, L-2, L-29, and L-30) treated with ivermectin paste at 200 mu g/kg. They were born in 2011 and raised together on a farm (MC) in Central Kentucky. The horses had not been treated previously with an antiparasitic drug. However, ivermectin had been administered repeatedly to the horse herd for several years and strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs) returned sooner posttreatment than after initial usage. Critical tests in a recent previous study in this horse herd indicated that the reason for the early return of strongyle EPGs after ivermectin treatment probably was because of lowered drug activity on immature (L-4) small strongyles in the lumen of the large intestine. Therefore, the life cycle was shortened. The main purpose of the present study was to obtain further data on the activity of ivermectin on small strongyle immature stages, in addition to adults, in the intestinal lumen. Twelve species of small strongyles were present. Combined data for immature and adult small strongyles for the four ivermectin-treated horses demonstrated efficacy of 68 to 83 %. Removal of adults was 100 % for all four horses, and on immatures, it ranged from 0 to 16 %. Efficacy on immature small strongyles was even lower than in the previous study.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Purpose: Schol

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Scholastic competence is a predictor of future achievement, yet there is little research about health factors that influence the development of self-perceived scholastic competence (SPSC). This study examined the relationship of insulin

resistance and body fatness with SPSC in low-income, overweight and obese, African American Linsitinib order children.\n\nMethods: Data were analyzed from a convenience sample of 9-10 years old African American children (89 boys and 113 girls) enrolled in a type 2 diabetes prevention study. Health variables analyzed for their influence on SPSC (Harter scale) included insulin resistance (Homeostatic model-derived insulin sensitivity, HOMA-IR) and body fatness (% body fat). Adjustments were made for self-esteem (Global Self Worth).\n\nResults: There was a significant gender by insulin resistance interaction effect on the child’s SPSC, so separate regression models were developed for each gender. In boys, neither insulin resistance nor body fatness was related to SPSC. In girls, however, insulin resistance was negatively related FG-4592 in vivo to SPSC scores, and the significance of the relationship increased further after adjusting for body fatness. Body fatness

alone was not significantly related to SPSC in girls, but after adjusting for insulin resistance, body fatness was positively related to SPSC. Thus, insulin resistance and body fatness mutually suppressed SPSC in girls.\n\nConclusion: High SPSC was associated with lower insulin resistance and, with insulin resistance held constant, with higher body fatness in girls but not in boys. These relationships were not influenced by self-esteem in these children. (C) 2010 Elsevier U0126 clinical trial Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This research was conducted with the aim to quantify the effect of phosphorus and potassium fertilization on forage yield of berseem (Trifolium alaxandrium). The experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan during the cropping season of 2004 to 2005. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) having four replications was used for the experiment. Significant differences

were found among the treatments for number of branches per plant, fresh forage yield and dry forage yield. The highest number of branches per plant (9.15), fresh forage yield (6077 kg ha(-1)) and dry forage yield (156.83 kg ha(-1)) were recorded in plots with 60 kg P ha(-1) x 30 kg K ha(-1) treatments, while the lowest values of 6.93, 5430 kg ha(-1) and 153.80 kg ha(-1) for branches per plant, fresh forage yield and dry forage yield, respectively were recorded in the plots with no fertilizer (control). Emergence (m(-2)) and plant height of berseem were non-significantly affected by phosphorus and potassium fertilization. So, it was concluded that berseem showed better performance in terms of higher forage yield under 60 kg P ha(-1) x 30 kg K ha(-1) levels in Peshawar valley.

A 55-year-old Caucasian man arrived at a hepatitis C clinic to di

A 55-year-old Caucasian man arrived at a hepatitis C clinic to discuss alternative treatment options for his hepatitis C virus (genotype 1a) infection, which did not respond to a 48-week course of peginterferon and ribavirin therapy. He was subsequently treated with interferon alfacon-1 9 mu g subcutaneously

daily plus ribavirin 200 mg orally twice daily. During treatment with YM155 interferon alfacon-1, he developed elevated hepatic transaminase levels despite a decrease in viral load. His hepatic transaminase levels returned to baseline when interferon alfacon-1 was discontinued and rose again upon rechallenge. Ribavirin was not the likely cause of the increase in transaminases since the patient previously tolerated it in combination with peginterferon. While activation of autoimmune hepatitis is a potential cause of acute decompensation in patients treated with interferons, it was not believed to be the case in this patient. Interferon alfacon-1 was determined to be the probable cause of the rise in hepatic transaminase levels in

this patient, since his levels declined when therapy was discontinued and rose dramatically once it was restarted. This case illustrates the importance of monitoring both viral loads and hepatic transaminase levels in patients with hepatitis C being treated with interferon therapy.\n\nConclusion. A patient with hepatitis C developed elevated hepatic transaminase levels despite showing an improvement in viral load after receiving interferon C59 Wnt Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor alfacon-1 and ribavirin.”
“Background: The swine is an essential model for carrying out preclinical research and for teaching complex surgical procedures. There is a lack of experimental models describing anatomical and surgical aspects of total pancreatectomy in the pig. Materials and Methods: The experiments were performed on 10 white A-1155463 supplier male swine weighing 27-33 kg. The animals were premedicated with midazolam (0.4 mg/kg, i.m.) and ketamine (4 mg/kg, i.m.). Anesthesia

was induced with propofol (1-2 mg/kg, i.v.) and was maintained with propofol and fentanyl (0.3 mg and 0.1 mu g/kg/min, respectively, i.v.). The surgical period ranged from 44 to 77 min. The pancreas anatomy, and the main arterial, venous and pancreatic duct anatomy were assessed. Results: The pancreas anatomy was composed of 3 lobes, the ‘splenic’, ‘duodenal’ and ‘connecting’ lobe which is attached to the anterior portion of the portal vein. The splenic artery and the junction of the splenic vein and portal vein were divided. The left gastric artery was dissected and separated from its origin at the splenic artery. The head of the pancreas is disposed in a C shape. The pancreas was dissected and liberated from the right portion of the portal vein and the infrahepatic vena cava. The pancreas was separated from the duodenum preserving the pancreaticoduodenal artery, then we performed the total pancreatectomy preserving the duodenum, common bile duct and spleen.

Transit dosimetric EPID images were then acquired during treatmen

Transit dosimetric EPID images were then acquired during treatment and compared offline with predicted transit images using a global 5%, 3-mm gamma criterion.\n\nResults: There were 288 transit images analyzed. The overall gamma pass rate was 89.1% +/- 9.8% (average +/- 1 SD). For the subset of images for which the linear accelerator couch did not interfere with the measurement, the gamma pass rate was 95.7% +/- 2.4%. A case study is presented

in which the transit dosimetry algorithm was able to identify that a lung patient’s bilateral pleural effusion had resolved in the time between the planning CT scan and the treatment.\n\nConclusions: The EPID transit dosimetry algorithm under consideration, previously described and verified in a phantom study, is feasible selleck kinase inhibitor for use in treatment delivery verification for real patients. Two-dimensional Cyclopamine EPID transit dosimetry can play an important role in indicating when a treatment delivery is inconsistent with the original plan. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc.”
“A potential role for vitamin D as a therapeutic immunomodulator in tuberculosis (TB) has been recognised for over 150 years, but has only recently returned to the centre of the research arena due to the increasing awareness of the global vitamin D deficiency epidemic. As early as birth a child is often deficient in vitamin D, which may not only

affect their bone metabolism but also modulate their 5-Fluoracil nmr immune function, contributing to the increased susceptibility to many infections seen early in life. Recent studies have begun to explain the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects immunity. Antimicrobial peptides are induced in conjunction with stimulation of innate pattern recognition receptors enhancing immunity to particular infections. In contrast the role of vitamin

D within the adaptive immune response appears to be more regulatory in function, perhaps as a mechanism to reduce unwanted inflammation. In this paper we focus on the effect of vitamin D on immunity to TB. Where much of the attention has been paid by past reviews to the role of vitamin D in adult TB patients, this paper, where possible, focuses on research in paediatric populations.”
“Objective Hypertrophy and lipomatosis of the interatrial septum have been thought to be contra indications for transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal defect closure because of the limits of current devices and the risk of suboptimal results. No reports have been produced yet about PFO closure in patients with such conditions. We retrospectively assessed the safety and effectiveness of PFO closure in patients with hypertrophy or lipomatosis of fossa ovalis rims.\n\nMethods We searched our database of 140 consecutive patients (mean age 43 +/- 15.

Using empirical data from rt-fMRI scans, we assessed the quality

Using empirical data from rt-fMRI scans, we assessed the quality of motion correction in this new system. The present

algorithm performed comparably to standard (non real-time) offline methods and outperformed other real-time methods based see more on zero order interpolation of motion parameters. The modular approach to the rt-fMRI system allows the system to be flexible to the experiment and feedback design, a valuable feature for many applications. We illustrate the flexibility of the system by describing several of our ongoing studies. Our hope is that continuing development of open-source rt-fMRI algorithms and software will make this new technology more accessible and adaptable, and will thereby accelerate its application in the clinical and cognitive neurosciences.”
“Despite the known presence of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in Bangladesh, its prevalence, including records of hospitalization in rural health facilities, is largely unknown. In a systematic surveillance undertaken in two Nutlin-3 solubility dmso government-run rural health facilities, 457 children, aged less than five years, having acute watery diarrhoea, were studied between August 2005 and July 2007 to determine the prevalence of rotavirus. Due to limited financial support, the surveillance of rotavinis was included as an addendum to an ongoing study for cholera in the same area. Rotavirus infection was

detected in 114 (25%) and Vibrio cholerae in 63 (14%) children. Neither rotavirus

nor V cholerae was detected in 280 (61%) samples; these were termed ‘non-rotavirus and non-cholera’ diarrhoea. Both rotavirus and cholera VX-770 in vitro were detected in all groups of patients (< 5 years). The highest proportion (41%; 47/114) of rotavinis was in the age-group of 6-11 months. In children aged less than 18 months, the proportion (67%; 76/114) of rotavinis was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that of cholera (16%; 10/63). By contrast, the proportion (84%; 53/63) of cholera was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that of rotavirus (33%; 38/114) in the age-group of 18-59 months. During the study period, 528 children were hospitalized for various illnesses. Thirty-eight percent (202/528) of the hospitalizations were due to acute watery diarrhoea, and 62% were due to non-diarrhoeal illnesses. Rotavirus accounted for 34% of hospitalizations due to diarrhoea. Severe dehydration was detected in 16% (74/457) of the children. The proportion (51%; 32/63) of severe dehydration among V cholerae-infected children was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to the proportion (16%; 18/114) of rotavirus-infected children. The study revealed that 12-14% of the hospitalizations in rural Bangladesh in this age-group were due to rotavirus infection, which has not been previously documented.

Results: A phylogenetic tree based on RdRp amino acid sequences w

Results: A phylogenetic tree based on RdRp amino acid sequences was constructed, and eight monophyletic groups were defined. Alignments of RdRp RNA sequences from each group were screened to identify RNA regions with conserved secondary structure. One region in the second half of ORF2 was identified and individually modeled using the RNAfold tool. Afterwards, each DNA or RNA sequence was denatured in silico using the softwares MELTSIM and RNAheat that generate melting curves considering the denaturation of a

double stranded DNA and single stranded RNA, respectively. The same groups identified in the RdRp phylogenetic tree were retrieved by a clustering analysis of the melting Proteasome inhibitor review curves data obtained from RNAheat. Moreover, the same approach was used to successfully discriminate different variants of Trichomonas vaginalis virus, which was not possible by the visual comparison of the double stranded melting curves generated by MELTSIM. Conclusion: In silico analysis indicate that ssRNA melting curves are more informative than dsDNA melting curves. Furthermore, conserved RNA structures may be determined from analysis of individuals that are phylogenetically

related, and these regions may be used to support the reconstitution of their phylogenetic groups. These findings are a robust basis for the development of in vitro systems to ssRNA melting curves BIIB057 detection.”
“Although neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is commonly considered neurocutaneous, severe arterial and venous abnormalities have

been noted. Our patient, a 28-year-old woman, had bilateral giant extracranial aneurysms of the internal carotid arteries as well as skull base meningoceles involving the jugular foramina and aberrant jugular veins, CT and MR imaging, as well as digital subtraction and/or other angiography techniques, may be required to clarify pathology in patients with suggested vascular lesions.”
“Encephalitozoon species are the most common microsporidian pathogens of humans and domesticated animals. We recently discovered a new microsporidium, Encephalitozoon romaleae, infecting the eastern lubber grasshopper Romalea microptera. To understand its evolutionary relationships, we compared partial gene sequences of alpha- and beta-tubulin and Dinaciclib methionine aminopeptidase 2 enzyme from this and related species. We also analyzed the rRNA internal transcribed spacer. Based on tubulin and MetAP-2 gene phylogenetic analysis, E. romaleae clustered with the Encephalitzoon group with strong bootstrap support (>99%). Within the Encephalitozoon clade, E. romaleae clustered with Encephalitozoon hellem for both the beta-tubulin and MetAP-2 phylogenies based on ML tree. The alpha-tubulin based ML tree, however, placed the new microsporidium closer to Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The rRNA internal transcribed spacer region of E.

Initially, microbial counts of fresh minced meat showed microbial

Initially, microbial counts of fresh minced meat showed microbial loads Citarinostat cost between 3.5 and 5.0 log cfu/g. The observed microbial diversity was relatively high, and the most abundant bacteria differed among the samples. During storage an increase of microbial counts coincided with a dramatic decrease in bacterial diversity. At the end of the storage period, most samples showed microbial counts above the spoilage level of 7 log cfu/g. A relatively similar bacterial community was obtained regardless of the manufacturing batch and the preservative used, with Lactobacillus algidus and Leuconostoc sp. as the most dominant microorganisms. This suggests that both bacteria played an important role in the

spoilage of minced meat packaged under modified atmosphere. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“High-percent mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. We conducted a meta analysis of five genome-wide association studies of percent mammographic density and report an association with rs10995190 in ZNF365 (combined P = 9.6 x 10(-10)). Common variants in ZNF365 have also recently been associated with susceptibility to breast cancer.”
“In recent years, the increasing awareness that

somatic mutations and Sotrastaurin molecular weight other genetic aberrations drive human malignancies has led us within reach of personalized cancer medicine (PCM). The implementation of PCM is based on the following premises: genetic aberrations exist in human malignancies; a subset of these aberrations drive oncogenesis and tumor biology; these aberrations

are actionable (defined as having the potential to affect management recommendations based on diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive implications); and there are highly specific anticancer agents available that effectively modulate these targets. This article highlights the technology underlying cancer genomics and examines the early results of genome sequencing and the challenges met in the discovery GKT137831 order of new genetic aberrations. Finally, drawing from experiences gained in a feasibility study of somatic mutation genotyping and targeted exome sequencing led by Princess Margaret Hospital-University Health Network and the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, the processes, challenges, and issues involved in the translation of cancer genomics to the clinic are discussed. J Clin Oncol 30:647-660. (c) 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology”
“Background. To evaluate the clinical performance of photodynamic diagnostic (PDD) after oral administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for assessment of tumor type and surgical margins in laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery.\n\nMaterials and Methods. This is a prospective, non-randomized single-center study. A total of 77 patients with a renal mass < 4 cm diameter underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). For photosentization, 1.5 g 5-ALA was administered orally 4 h prior to surgery.

Changes in mature granulocytes and progenitor cells in bone marro

Changes in mature granulocytes and progenitor cells in bone marrow (BM) and blood were studied. In addition, the ability of probiotics to accelerate the recovery of the immune response against the opportunistic SNX-5422 supplier pathogen Candida albicans was evaluated. We demonstrated for the first time that the preventive treatment with immunomodulatory lactobacilli such as L. casei CRL431 or L. rhamnosus CRL1506 was able to increase immature myeloid progenitors in the BM, allowing an early

recovery of myeloid cells after Cy administration. Probiotic lactobacilli were also capable to induce an early recovery of neutrophils in blood, improve phagocytic cells recruitment to infectious sites and increase the resistance against the opportunistic pathogen C. albicans. Although deeper studies regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of probiotic actions are needed, these findings support the idea that strains like CRL431 and CRL1506 may accelerate the recovery of Cy-caused immunosuppression by immunopotentiating myeloid cells. Then, probiotic lactobacilli have the potential to be used as alternatives for lessening chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression in cancer patients. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. The superiority of true drug treatment over placebo in reducing symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is small and bought by relevant rates of drop-outs due to adverse events. Recent

systematic reviews demonstrated that a substantial proportion of the beneficial and adverse effects of CP-868596 true drug is attributable to placebo in chronic pain trials. We determined the magnitude of the placebo and nocebo response and its impact on the benefits and harms of true drug in trials of drugs which were submitted for approval for treatment of FMS.\n\nMethods. CENTRAL, MEDLINE and were searched from inception to Tune 30, 2012 for randomised double-blind placebo controlled trials with a parallel design for duloxetine, rnilnacipran, pregabalin and sodium oxybate in FMS-patients. The magnitude of placebo response was assessed by the pooled estimate of a 50% placebo pain reduction. The magnitude of nocebo response was determined by the pooled estimate of drop-out rates due to adverse events in placebo groups.\n\nResults. 18 studies with 3546 patients on placebo were included. The pooled estimate of a 50% pain reduction by placebo was 18.6% (95% CI 17.4 to 19.9%). The pooled estimate of dropout due to adverse events in placebo groups was 10.9% (95% CI 9.9 to 11.9%).\n\nConclusions. The magnitude of placebo and nocebo response in trials of drugs applying for approval for FMS treatment was substantial. Study investigators aim to reduce placebo response. By contrast, clinicians often utilise placebo effects. Strategies to reduce nocebo responses in clinical trials and practice should be developed.”
“Sphingolipids play important roles in regulating cellular responses.

Forty-seven UCLP patients were retrospectively divided into two g

Forty-seven UCLP patients were retrospectively divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 25 patients who underwent early lip closure and simultaneous hard palate closure AZD6244 purchase using a vomer flap.

Group B included 22 patients who had lip closure only at first surgery. Palatal cleft widths of both groups were measured at two time points and were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test to examine the influence of vomerplasty in this very early stage. No significant difference of baseline characteristics between the groups was found, and comparison of age at the time of surgeries was not significantly different. Mean age at the time of vomerplasty was 4.0 months. After the first surgery, a significantly greater total cleft width reduction of 5.0 mm average was found in group A compared to only 1.5 mm reduction in group B. This reduction took place after an average of 7.1 and 7.0 months, respectively. Lip closure accompanied RepSox by early hard palate closure using a vomer flap is associated with a significant postoperative reduction of the residual cleft when compared to

lip closure only. This study shows another great advantage of performing early hard palate closure using a vomer flap.”
“The relative importance of the processes that generate and maintain biodiversity is a major and controversial topic in evolutionary biology with large implications for conservation management. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil, one of the world’s richest biodiversity hot spots, is severely damaged by human activities. To formulate an efficient conservation policy, a good understanding of spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns and their underlying evolutionary mechanisms is required. With this aim, we performed a comprehensive phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism, the land planarian species Cephaloflexa bergi (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida). Analysing multi-locus DNA sequence variation under the Approximate Bayesian Computation framework, we evaluated two scenarios proposed to explain the diversity of Southern Atlantic CCI-779 research buy Forest (SAF) region. We found that most sampled localities harbour high levels

of genetic diversity, with lineages sharing common ancestors that predate the Pleistocene. Remarkably, we detected the molecular hallmark of the isolation-by-distance effect and little evidence of a recent colonization of SAF localities; nevertheless, some populations might result from very recent secondary contacts. We conclude that extant SAF biodiversity originated and has been shaped by complex interactions between ancient geological events and more recent evolutionary processes, whereas Pleistocene climate changes had a minor influence in generating present-day diversity. We also demonstrate that land planarians are an advantageous biological model for making phylogeographic and, particularly, fine-scale evolutionary inferences, and propose appropriate conservation policies.

In this case report, we describe an acute rupture of the TP tendo

In this case report, we describe an acute rupture of the TP tendon following a pronation-external rotation injury of the ankle with no association of a medial Citarinostat malleolus fracture and with no history of a prior flatfoot deformity or symptoms.”
“This paper reports the role of darkling beetles Pimelia laevigata costipennis and Hegeter amaroides (Tenebrionidae) as intermediate hosts

of spiruroid nematodes parasites of the black rat and house mouse of El Hierro (Canary Islands). Larvae of spiruroid species were found in the two tenebrionids (18.1% in P. l. costipennis, 7.8% in H. amaroides), Streptopharagus greenbergi being predominant in both (16.1% and 7.1%, respectively), ahead of Mastophorus muris and Gongylonema type larva. The larval stages of S. greenbergi are described for the first time, and adult worms were obtained experimentally from an infected laboratory rat, allowing the identification of the species. Morphometric measurements of experimental adults match those of adults detected in naturally infected rats on the island. Molecular data for S. greenbergi, and the ITS

nucleotide sequence of the genus Streptopharagus are also provided for the first Alvocidib time. After the isolation of S. greenbergi DNA and amplification of the ITS region, the ITS1 of this spirocercid was sequenced and deposited in the GenBank database. (C) 2013 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Unlike other characterized phages, the lytic coliphage N4 must inject the 360-kDa virion RNA polymerase (vRNAP), in addition to its 72-kbp genome, into the host for successful infection. The process of adsorption

to the host sets up and elicits the necessary conformational changes in the virion to allow genome and vRNAP injection. Infection of suppressor and nonsuppressor strains, Escherichia coli W3350 supF and E. coli W3350, with a mutant N4 isolate (N4am229) harboring an amber mutation in Orf65 yielded virions containing (N4gp65(+)) and lacking (N4gp65(-)) gp65, respectively. N4gp65(+) but PF-02341066 datasheet not N4gp65(-) phage was able to adsorb to the host. Recombinant gp65 with a hexahistidine tag at the N terminus or hexahistidine and c-myc tags at the C terminus was able to complement N4gp65(-) virions in vivo and in vitro. Immunogold detection of gp65 in vivo complemented virions revealed its localization at the N4 tail. Finally, we show both in vitro and in vivo that gp65 interacts with the previously determined N4 outer membrane receptor, NfrA.”
“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive weakness, muscle atrophy, and paralysis due to the loss of upper and lower motoneurons (MNs). Sigma-1 receptor (sigma-1R) activation promotes neuroprotection after ischemic and traumatic injuries to the central nervous system.