[3, 8] In adults, this complication occurs essentially in immunoc

[3, 8] In adults, this complication occurs essentially in immunocompromised[3, 6] or elderly (>65 years) patients.[5, 7] In immune-competent adults, Shigella bacteremias are quite uncommon and clinical presentations often mild,[4, 5, 7] suggesting possible underestimation. Clinically, Selleck Bortezomib the main symptom is a febrile, acute (<7 days), diarrhea frequently without blood, but often associated with dehydration. Sometimes, especially in immunodeficient adults, diarrhea can persist and become chronic; or diarrhea may be absent and a fever or sepsis may be the only symptom.[3, 6] However, patients of any age can be afebrile.[3] Bacteremic symptoms can vary from mild, as in our two observations, to severe with subsequent

complications.[3, 6] Laboratory investigations generally reflect an inflammatory response, and do not predict bacteremia or fluid loss-induced circulatory instability. Leucopenia or thrombocytopenia can be seen. In HIV-infected

adults, CD4 counts are generally lower than 200/mm3, reflecting severe immunodeficiency.[3] Diagnosis is based on blood cultures. The Shigella group includes four serogroups such as Shigella dysenteriae, S flexneri, Shigella boydii, and Shigella sonnei. S flexneri, the most frequently encountered species in endemic zones and travelers, CB-839 mw is mainly responsible for bacteraemia.[1-5] Of note, fecal cultures can be negative,[1] as occurred in both of our cases, thus emphasizing the need for systematically obtaining blood cultures in all invasive diarrheas. Pathogenicity is similar for the four serogroups. Interactions between bacterial virulence factors and host immunity induce an inflammatory response which often limits the invasion of the colon mucous membrane.[1] However, because of bacterial factors, eg, virulence, size of bacterial inoculum, or host factors such as young age or immunodeficiency, extra-intestinal

complications like bacteremia may occur.[1-3] Thus in nearly an immune-competent young adult, Shigella bacteremia is quite unusual,[4] and reasons for its occurrence must be sought, eg, co-morbidities such as in our two patients. The first patient had taken a prolonged loperamide self-treatment and high dose ibuprofen, but no antibiotics. Loperamide delays bacterial clearance due to its inhibitive effect on smooth muscle structure,8 and has been associated with intestinal complications in travelers’ diarrheas.[9] It should not be taken alone when an invasive pathogen is suspected, especially in a gross bloody or febrile (>38.5°C) diarrhea.[8, 10, 11] But its use in combination with an antimicrobial treatment was shown to be safe and shorten duration of diarrhea in adults with dysentery due to Shigella sp.[11] Concomitant use of loperamide and ibuprofen but no antibiotics taking may have favored the occurrence of bacteremia. The second patient was co-infected with P falciparum. In the tropical environment, concomitant bacterial bloodstream infection with malaria is frequent.

Understanding this association should improve the safety of antir

Understanding this association should improve the safety of antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy without increasing the risk of transmission. “
“The aim of the study was to investigate liver fibrosis outcome and the risk factors associated with liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-coinfected patients. We prospectively obtained liver stiffness measurements by transient elastography in a cohort of 154 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients, mostly Caucasian men on suppressive antiretroviral treatment, with the aim of determining the risk for liver stiffness measurement (LSM) increase and to identify the predictive factors for liver fibrosis progression.

To evaluate LSM trends over Talazoparib research buy time, a linear mixed regression model with LSM level as the outcome and duration of follow-up in years

as the main covariate was fitted. After a median follow-up time of 40 months, the median increase in LSM was 1.05 kPa/year [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72–1.38 kPa/year]. Fibrosis stage progression was seen in 47% of patients, and 17% progressed to cirrhosis. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and liver fibrosis stage at baseline were identified as independent predictors of LSM change. Patients with F3 (LSM 9.6–14.5 kPa) or AST levels ≥ 64 IU/L at baseline were at higher risk for accelerated LSM increase (ranging from 1.45 to 2.61 kPa/year), whereas LSM change was very slow among patients with both F0−F1 (LSM ≤ 7.5 kPa)

and AST levels ≤ 64 IU/L at baseline (0.34 to 0.58 kPa/year). An intermediate risk for LSM increase (from 0.78 to 1.03 kPa/year) Roscovitine manufacturer was seen in patients with F2 (LSM 7.6–9.5 kPa) Oxymatrine and AST baseline levels ≤ 64 IU/L. AST levels and liver stiffness at baseline allow stratification of the risk for fibrosis progression and might be clinically useful to guide HCV treatment decisions in HIV-infected patients. “
“Background. Air travelers play a significant role in the spread of novel strains of influenza viruses; however, little is understood about the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of international air travelers toward pandemic influenza in relation to public health interventions and personal protective behaviors at overseas destinations. Methods. Prior to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, we surveyed a convenience sample of 404 departing international travelers at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport. Presented with a hypothetical pandemic influenza scenario occurring overseas, the participants predicted their anticipated protective behaviors while abroad and recorded their attitudes toward potential screening measures at US ports of entry (POE). The survey also qualitatively explored factors that would influence compliance with health entry screening at POE. Results. Those who perceived pandemic influenza to be serious were more likely to state that they would be comfortable with screening (p = 0.

Other risk factors

Other risk factors JAK inhibition assessed in the models included whether the patient had ever had contact with live pigs and whether the patient had ever eaten raw or undercooked pork (both categorized as binary

variables). All statistical analyses were conducted using the R software [14]. This study had ethical approval from the Plymouth and Cornwall Ethics Committee. A total of 138 patients with HIV infection were included in the study. Of these, 109 (79%) were male with a median age of 43 years (range 19–70 years). The demographic and laboratory variables for the study patients are shown in Table 1. It was found that 31 patients (22.5%) had abnormal liver function tests, but in most cases these were mild and only seven patients had an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) value greater than twice the upper limit of normal. The median CD4 count was 520 cells/μL and only 10 patients (7.2%) had a CD4 count of <250 cells/μL. No patients had an ALT value more than twice the upper limit of normal and a CD4 count of <250 cells/μL. Nineteen patients (13.8%) recalled contact with live pigs, and 15 (10.9%) recalled consuming undercooked or uncooked pork products in the past. None of the 138 HIV-positive patients tested had HEV or HAV RNA

detected in their serum by RT-PCR. One hundred and thirty-seven Antiinfection Compound Library of the 138 patients were anti-HEV IgM negative; the remaining sample

gave an equivocal result. Thirteen of the 138 patients (9.4%) were anti-HEV IgG positive, compared with 64 of the 464 controls (13.8%). The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in the control group increased with age (P<0.001) from a mean of 4% Lck at age 20 years to 30% at age 80 years. After adjusting for age and sex, there was no difference in anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence between the HIV-infected patient population and the control group (P=0.8). Of the seven HIV-infected patients with ALT greater than twice the upper limit of normal, none was anti-HEV IgG positive. Table 2 shows risk factor analysis for anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in the HIV-infected population, with one risk factor tested at a time in age/sex-adjusted models. Eating raw or undercooked pork was associated with a significant increase in the risk of anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in the HIV-infected population [odds ratio (OR) 5.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–22.9; P=0.02], after adjustment for age and sex. The only other significant risk factor in basic adjusted models was ethnicity, with non-White patients more likely to test seropositive (OR 5.31; 95% CI 1.1–29.5; P=0.03). After fitting a multivariable model using a forward stepwise selection approach, the association between eating undercooked pork and anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence remained (P=0.

Eighteen men were coinfected with HIV and four were coinfected wi

Eighteen men were coinfected with HIV and four were coinfected with both HIV and HBV. Of the couples, 92.8% (26 of 28) were ‘voluntarily’ infertile to prevent viral transmission to their partner. A male factor was identified in 28% (seven of 25) of infected men and tubal disease in 25% (one of four) of infected women. Of the 24 HCV-infected couples who proceeded to assisted reproduction

treatment, 12.5% (three of 24) received state funding. Of the 205 couples analysed, 44% (90 of 205) lived in London, 51% (104 of 205) came from elsewhere in the United Kingdom and 5% (11 of 205) travelled from outside the United Kingdom to seek treatment Endocrinology antagonist because of their viral status. Genitourinary medicine SB431542 purchase clinics were the main source of referral (63.2%). Other sources of referral included fertility clinics (13.3%), General Practitioners (GP) (6.6%), gynaecology clinics (5.1%), self referrals (5.1%), haemophilia clinics (4.6%) and chest clinics (2.1%) (Fig. 1). Our study demonstrates that a high percentage of couples living with HIV, HBV and HCV are voluntarily infertile. This cohort of patients avoid unprotected intercourse and

use condoms at all times in order to minimize the risk of infecting their partner. As this practice inhibits pregnancy, assisted procreation is generally required for the safe realization of conception. Although voluntary use of condoms is a major inhibitor of conception, co-existing factors that compromise fertility were frequently Rutecarpine encountered during assessment of these couples. Fertility screening identified a high incidence of male factor infertility among infected men and tubal disease in HIV-infected women, necessitating in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

The higher incidence of male factor infertility among HIV-positive men has been reported [5,6]. Nicopoullos et al. [5] showed that HIV-positive men were about 1.5-times more likely to have abnormal semen parameters than HIV-negative men. That series also showed a positive correlation between total sperm concentration and CD4 cell count. A similar finding was reported by Dulisoust et al. [6]. The pathogenesis of male factor infertility in HIV-positive men may be multifactorial. A direct effect of HIV on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis has been suggested [7]. Advanced HIV infection has been associated with low serum testosterone levels [8]. It is also possible that concomitant sexually transmitted infection may contribute to the pathogenesis of male factor infertility among HIV-positive men. There was also a high incidence of tubal factor infertility in this series (40.8% of HIV-positive women). Irwin et al. [9] studied the effect of HIV infection on pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and reported an increase in the prevalence and severity of PID among HIV-positive women with consequent tubal damage.

Clinical diagnosis is often difficult, as infectious exanthematou

Clinical diagnosis is often difficult, as infectious exanthematous diseases such as measles, rubella, Venetoclax solubility dmso human parvovirus B19, dengue, human herpes virus (HHV)-6, roseola infantum, and scarlet fever have overlapping clinical symptoms. In Brazil, from 1994 to 1998, 327 patients presenting with pathologies characterized by variable combinations of exanthema, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, and fever were studied. A laboratory-confirmed diagnosis was achieved in 71.3% of cases: 33% were diagnosed with dengue fever, 20% with rubella, 9.2% with human parvovirus B19, 6.7% with measles,

and 2.1% with HHV-6.[4] These results underline the important proportion of cosmopolitan febrile exanthemas. In France, Hochedez and colleagues screened 62 returning travelers presenting with fever and exanthema for exotic (if returning from endemic areas) and cosmopolitan infections. They found a specific etiology in over 90% of the patients. The three main diagnoses were chikungunya, dengue, and African tick bite fever, followed by infectious mononucleosis, human immunodeficiency virus-1 primary infection, cytomegalovirus primary infection, PF-562271 price measles, rubella, chicken pox, streptococcal infections, primary toxoplasmosis, acute schistosomiasis, and adverse drug reactions.[1]

Travelers presenting with febrile exanthema should therefore be screened not only for arboviral infections according to the area visited but also for more common infections. The diagnosis of dengue fever is based on the detection of NS1 Ag, antibodies (IgM and IgG) or reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (virus isolation is used less often). For early diagnosis (onset < 5 days), detection of NS1 Ag may

be used, but its moderate sensitivity requires the presence of both NS1 Ag and IgM for a definite diagnosis.[5] IgM are positive 4 to 5 days after disease onset and remain so for up to 3 to 6 months. IgG appear approximately 7–10 days after onset and are detectable thereafter for life. RT-PCR detection of viral RNA is a very reliable technique for patients presenting within 5 to 7 days of the onset of symptoms, but this method is more expensive, nonstandardized, and only a few centers in France use it Baf-A1 routinely.[6] Consequently, serological tests are commonly used to establish or confirm a diagnosis of dengue. Currently available commercial rapid tests offer good sensitivity, but they lack specificity, which may lead to false-positive results as in our index case. Overall, possible explanations for false-positive results include cross-reactive flavivirus-specific antibodies, nonspecific binding of antibodies secreted in the course of various infections such as mononucleosis or hepatitis, and rheumatoid factor.[7] Cross-reactivity with measles antibodies is not commonly assumed by biologists and, to our knowledge, has only been reported once in Belgium.

Data from Africa showed an incidence of stage IV CKD of 7% in unt

Data from Africa showed an incidence of stage IV CKD of 7% in untreated patients after initiating antiretroviral therapy (using the

CG equation) [18] while the UK CHIC study reported a prevalence of stage V CKD of 0.31% (using the MDRD equations) [19]. To date, studies in HIV infection have used an extremely wide range of endpoints and methodologies. These include, but are not limited to, an eGFR<90 [1,20], <60 [17,20–27], <30 [18] or <15 mL/min/1.73 m2 [19], the rate of change in eGFR [18,21,24,28–32], a 20 [1], 25 [29] or 50% decline in eGFR [29], a 25% decrease in eGFR for those with an eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 [17,27],

a decline in eGFR of >3 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year [32], the rate of change in serum creatinine [33], and a 25% increase in [34] or doubling of serum creatinine [35]. Some studies PD0332991 have been cross-sectional [1,25], and some have used cystatin C to estimate eGFR rather than serum creatinine [32]. In some cases, although the phosphatase inhibitor library study reports using the recommended classification system [13], CKD, however defined, is either not based on consecutive (i.e. confirmed values) measured at least 3 months apart or it is not clear whether or not this is the case [22,23,36,37]. Research into renal disease in HIV-infected persons is an expanding area and a welcome development for improving our understanding in this clinical area. Although there

is currently no consensus regarding which Thalidomide endpoint should be focused on, studies that focus on less advanced CKD, such as that by Tordato et al. [1], need to be interpreted with caution in light of the issues raised above and as the clinical relevance of such findings is not immediately clear. Risk factors for the development of less advanced CKD and outcomes in patients with small decreases in eGFR are likely to be different from those seen in patients with more advanced CKD, as are the likely interventions and management of these patients. As the field progresses, it will be useful to keep in mind the limitations of the available tools, for studies to consider a variety of sensitivity analyses using different endpoints or equations, and finally to work towards developing a common, useful, and clinically relevant endpoint. Such a common endpoint would help with identifying common risk factors and how these risk factors differ in different populations, facilitate appropriate interventions and enable changes over time or between patient populations to be monitored more easily.

The purified protein was stored at −20 °C in buffer 3 The activi

The purified protein was stored at −20 °C in buffer 3. The activity of the Cry30Fa1 protein, obtained from the recombinant E. coli strain, was tested against P. xylostella (Lepidoptera), Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera), and A. aegypti (Diptera). The larvae used in this study were reared in our laboratory. The bioactivity assays against P. xylostella and H.

armigera was performed as described by Song et al. (2003). The insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis strains was assayed on the larvae of mosquitoes as described by Ibarra et al. (2003). Finally, the larvae were used for a treatment. Each click here treatment was replicated three times and its mortality was recorded after 72 h. The result of PCR amplification

showed that one special band, about 1.4 kb, was obtained using the primers S5un30/S3un30 (Fig. 1a). The amplification products were digested with the enzyme DraI and MspI, respectively. As shown in Fig. 1, the RFLP pattern, digested by the DraI contained three main bands (about 145, 450, and 800 bp, respectively), sizes which were similar to that of cry30Aa (Table 1). However, the RFLP pattern digested by the MspI revealed three main bands (about 250, 400, and 750 bp, respectively) that did not Maraviroc coincide with the reported cry30Aa genes. Furthermore, this PCR product was cloned and sequenced and had the highest identity (84.8%) to cry30Aa1 when compared PRKACG with the known cry30 genes. These results indicated that the strain BtMC28 contained a novel cry30-type gene. In order to obtain the full length of the novel cry gene, the Son-PCR upstream and

downstream strategies were performed using four nested specific primers. As Fig. 1b shows, the amplification products showed two to three bands in the first Son-PCR. After the second nested PCR, clear amplified bands could be seen at 800- and 1000-bp sites. These two bands were cloned and sequenced. The sequencing results indicated that the 5′ and 3′ ends of the cry30Fa1 gene were 829 and 947 bp, respectively. By assembling the known partial sequence of the cry30Fa1 gene with the 5′ and 3′ ends, the full-length sequence was obtained; it had about 3017 bp, which contains the ORF of 2064 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 687 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 77.1 kDa and an isoelectric point of 7.61. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that it corresponds to a putative Cry protein and was at maximum 74% homologous to that of Cry30Aa1 (Fig. 2). This novel cry gene was designated as cry30Fa1 by the B. thuringiensis Pesticide Crystal Protein Nomenclature Committee.

7 and Supporting Information Fig S5) The cell-based (Fig 2) an

7 and Supporting Information Fig. S5). The cell-based (Fig. 2) and in vitro (Fig. 6) binding assays showed that NRX1α and

NRX1–3β carrying the splice site 4 insert specifically bound to Cbln1. Cbln1 coated on beads directly accumulated NRX1β(S4+) on granule cell axons (Fig. 4B and Supporting Information Fig. S2A) and Cbln1-induced presynaptic differentiation was specifically inhibited by soluble NRX1β(S4+)-Fc (Fig. 4C), indicating that NRXs(S4+) serves as a presynaptic receptor for Cbln1. In addition, NRX1β(S4+) coated on beads clustered GluD2 and its interacting intracellular protein shank2 in postsynaptic Purkinje cells in a Cbln1-dependent manner (Fig. 5B). These results indicate that the tripartite

complex consisting of NRX(S4+), Cbln1 and GluD2 could serve as a bidirectional synaptic organizer. The NRX/Cbln1/GluD2 complex check details has several unique features as a synapse organizer (Fig. 8). First, unlike NRXs/NLs (Nguyen & Sudhof, 1997) or NRXs/LRRTMs (Ko et al., 2009; Siddiqui et al., 2010), this complex was resistant to low extracellular Ca2+ concentrations. The crystal structure of NRX1β indicates that Ca2+ binding is essential for binding to NLs (Koehnke et al., 2008). selleck chemicals llc Similarly, other NRX ligands, such as LRRTMs and α-dystroglycan (Sugita et al., 2001), also bind to NRX in a Ca2+-dependent manner. In contrast, neurexophilins bind to the second laminin, NRX, sex-hormone-binding protein (LNS) domain in NRXα in a Ca2+-independent manner (Missler et al., 1998). Unlike neurexophilins but like NLs and LRRTMs, Cbln1 binds to both NRXα and NRXβ, suggesting that Cbln1 binds to the sixth LNS domain in which the splice site 4 insert

is located (Craig & Kang, 2007). Structural studies on NRX1β(S4+) have shown that the splice site 4 insert is unstructured and remains partially disordered in the complex with NLs despite its high level of sequence conservation, suggesting that Quinapyramine it has a distinct functional role in binding to partner molecules other than NLs (Koehnke et al., 2008). Together, these findings indicate that Cbln1 binds to the region involving the splice site 4 insert of NRXs in a manner distinct from NLs or LRRTMs. Although it remains unclear whether Cbln1 and NLs compete for presynaptic NRXs in vivo, Cbln1 inhibited the interaction between NL1(−) and NRX(S4+) in vitro (Fig. 1) probably by steric hindrance because Cbln1 and NL1(−) are unlikely to share the same binding site of NRX(S4+). Although various cell adhesion molecules (such as cadherins, protocadherins, NRXs/NLs and NRXs/LRRTMs) require extracellular Ca2+, synaptic adhesion itself is independent of Ca2+ (Sudhof, 2001). cbln1- and GluD2-null mice are ataxic, showing a markedly impaired performance on the rotorod test.

The host-specific role of a multidrug efflux pump is a novel feat

The host-specific role of a multidrug efflux pump is a novel feature in the rhizobia–legume symbioses. Consistent with the RegSR dependency of bdeAB, a B. japonicum regR mutant was found to have a greater sensitivity against the two tested antibiotics and a symbiotic defect that is most pronounced for soybean. Multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux systems are ubiquitous and important means by which living cells cope with toxic compounds in

their environment (Higgins, 2007; Blair & Piddock, 2009). These efflux systems have been classified into five families, whose members recognize and extrude a battery of structurally dissimilar compounds from the cell (Saier & Paulsen, 2001). Transport systems of the resistance/nodulation/cell division (RND) family are the major cause of antibiotic resistance selleck chemicals llc in clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria (Piddock, 2006). The well-studied RND-type drug export system of Escherichia coli consists of the AcrB transport UK-371804 clinical trial protein, localized in the cytoplasmic membrane, the membrane fusion protein AcrA, and the outer membrane protein TolC (Nikaido & Zgurskaya, 2001). The physiological role of MDR efflux systems is not only restricted to antibiotic resistance, but may also enhance the virulence of animal- and human-pathogenic bacteria (Piddock,

2006; Martinez et al., 2009). Plant roots produce and secrete a large diversity of secondary metabolites into the rhizosphere, several of which possess bioactive potential and play important roles in the interaction of plants with soil microorganisms. For example, phytoalexins form a central component of the plant defense system (Hammerschmidt, 1999; Grayer & Kokubun, 2001), and flavonoids serve as crucial

signaling compounds in the symbiotic interaction between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and their host plants (Long, 2001; Gibson et al., 2008). In phytopathogenic bacteria, MDR efflux systems were shown to contribute to the successful interaction with host plants. Their loss by mutation compromised the bacteria strongly in virulence and in their capability to extrude antibiotics and phytoalexins (see Martinez et al., 2009, and references Protein kinase N1 therein). By contrast, little is known about the role of MDR efflux pumps in rhizobia. Mutants of the bean symbiont Rhizobium etli that lack the RmrAB efflux pump (a member of the major facilitator superfamily) are more sensitive to phytoalexins and are impaired in root-nodule formation (Gonzalez-Pasayo & Martinez-Romero, 2000). In Sinorhizobium meliloti, the NolGHI proteins belonging to the RND-type efflux family are possibly involved in the export of nodulation signals (Saier et al., 1994), although this was disputed more recently (Hernandez-Mendoza et al., 2007).

It Sell

It selleck chemical was also observed that probiotic

dahi suppressed the diabetes progression and its complication through enhancing antioxidant system (Yadav et al., 2008). Though, the actual link between probiotic-mediated pathology of obesity and diabetes has been debated on the basis of farm animal’s data (Raoult, 2008; Delzenne & Reid, 2009; Ehrlich, 2009). In relation to these controversies, Bifidobacteria, one of the important classes of probiotic organisms, have been found to be decreased in overweight women in comparison with normal weight women (Santacruz et al., 2009). Recent studies have suggested that probiotic-based selective strains of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria show beneficial effects on obesity and type-2 diabetes (Aronsson et al., 2010). Andreasen et al. (2010) reported that L. acidophilus decreased the insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in human see more subjects. More recently, Vajro et al. (2011) and others (Kang et al., 2010; An et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2011; Naito

et al., 2011) showed that feeding of specific strains of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria ameliorate the progression of obesity and diabetes, suggesting that probiotic-mediated modulation of gut flora can be a potential therapy against obesity and diabetes. Although animal studies have shown promising results in probiotic-mediated P-type ATPase suppression of obesity and diabetes, very few studies in humans showed the significant effects. Hence, it is required to conduct well-designed studies for examining the efficacy of probiotic-based

formulation in the treatment for obesity and diabetes. Also, the mechanism(s) of action for probiotic-based formulation is not completely understood; therefore, future studies should also be focused on describing the probiotic action–targeted molecules and organs in physiologic models. Certain functional foods containing probiotic provide preformed lactase to gut and allow better digestion of lactose. The regulatory role of probiotics in allergic disease was demonstrated by a suppressive effect on lymphocytes’ proliferation and interleukin-4 generation in vitro (Sutas et al., 1996). Subsequently, the immune inflammatory responses to dietary antigens in allergic individuals were shown to be alleviated by probiotics, this being partly attributable to enhance the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (Pessi et al., 2000) and transferring growth factor-β (Haller et al., 2000). Probiotic bacteria also possess prophylactic and therapeutic properties.