7 ± 41 9, endocardial 130 2 ± 29 2); 70% baseline-flow (epicardia

7 ± 41.9, endocardial 130.2 ± 29.2); 70% baseline-flow (epicardial 160.4 ± 27.7, endocardial 112.1 ± 15.1); 30% baseline-flow (epicardial 44.3 ± 5.5, endocardial 32.9 ± 9); 20 minutes reperfusion (epicardial 175.8 ± 33.6, endocardial 126.5 ± 30); 120 minutes reperfusion (epicardial 146.3 ± 31.1, endocardial 107.1 ± 29.7); and complete LAD occlusion

(epicardial 10.5 ± 5.8 endocardial 1.4 ± 0.3) (r = 0.986–0.962, p < 0.001). Conclusions:  This new blood pressure waveform-triggered laser Doppler probe is able to measure RMBF at different depths online in the beating heart. "
“G-CSF and EPO have shown a notable capability in neovascularization. However, their use is limited because of untoward leucocytosis, erythrogenesis, GSK126 and short half-life in the plasma. Herein, we examined whether G-CSF and EPO released from fibrin gel injected into ischemic tissues would synergistically promote neovascularization with limited systematic effects in a rat hindlimb

ischemic model. In vivo study, group APO866 manufacturer Gel received an intramuscular injection of fibrin gel; group Gel+G-CSF received fibrin gel containing human G-CSF; group Gel+EPO received fibrin gel containing human EPO; group Gel+G-CSF&EPO received fibrin gel containing G-CSF and EPO; group G-CSF&EPO received G-CSF and EPO. Through promoting the expression of SDF-1, local high concentration of EPO could traffic

CXCR4+ cells mobilized by G-CSF Nintedanib ic50 to enhance neovascularization in ischemic muscle. The treatment with Gel+G-CSF&EPO was superior to the other treatments on blood flow reperfusion, capillary density, and α smooth muscle actin-positive vessel density. And this treatment induced a modest WBC count increase in peripheral blood. G-CSF and EPO released from fibrin gel had a combined effect on postischemia neovascularization. This treatment may be a novel therapeutic modality for ischemic peripheral artery disease. “
“Please cite this paper as: Chakraborty, Nepiyushchikh, Davis, Zawieja and Muthuchamy (2011). Substance P Activates Both Contractile and Inflammatory Pathways in Lymphatics Through the Neurokinin Receptors NK1R and NK3R. Microcirculation18(1), 24–35. Objective:  The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular signaling mechanisms by which substance P (SP) modulates lymphatic muscle contraction and to determine whether SP stimulates both contractile as well as inflammatory pathways in the lymphatics. Methods:  A rat mesenteric lymphatic muscle cell culture model (RMLMCs) and known specific pharmacological inhibitors were utilized to delineate SP-mediated signaling pathways in lymphatics. Results:  We detected expression of neurokinin receptor 1 (NK1R) and neurokinin receptor 3 (NK3R) in RMLMCs.

Endogenous peroxidase

activity was blocked by incubation

Endogenous peroxidase

activity was blocked by incubation for 5 min in peroxidase block, diluted in 0·03% hydrogen peroxide in 95% ethanol. Following three rinses with distilled water, 0·05% Tris-buffered saline (TBS) for 5 min and 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in TBS for 10 min, the sections were incubated for 60 min at room temperature with the primary antibodies (mouse anti-human) diluted in 1% BSA/TBS in the following dilutions: anti-CD4 (clone 4B12; 1:20) and anti-CD8 (clone 1A5; 1:20) obtained from Novocastra and anti-forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) antibody (clone 236 A/E7; 1:50), obtained from eBioscience (San Diego, CA, USA). After rinsing with TBS, a secondary antibody (EnVision+ XAV939 kit K4004; Dako, Carpinteria, Y 27632 CA, USA) labelled with horseradish peroxidase was applied for 30 min at room temperature. Enzymatic activity was revealed

by a 5–10-min incubation with 3, 3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) + substrate-chromogen (EnVision+ kit K4007; Dako), which results in a brown-coloured precipitate at the antigen site. Counterstaining was performed with aqueous Mayer’s haematoxylin (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). Negative controls were performed with omission of the primary antibody. The sections and antibodies were examined using an LSM 510 microscope (Carl Zeiss MicroImaging, Oberkochen, Germany). Biopsies taken from 17 individuals, seven patients with psoriasis, two of whom had a positive elicitation reaction and 10

healthy controls, five of whom had a positive elicitation reaction, were prepared for the microarray study. Before taking these skin biopsies the skin was frozen using a liquid nitrogen spray to inhibit RNA degradation. The skin biopsies were placed immediately in liquid nitrogen and transferred to a −80°C freezer. For RNA extraction, the frozen skin biopsies were ground in liquid nitrogen, transferred to lysis/binding buffer (Applied Biosystems, Rotterdam, the Netherlands) and homogenized with a rotor stator (Polytron PT3000; Kinematica AG, Buch TCL & Holm A/S, Herlev, Denmark). Total RNA was then extracted using the mirVanaTM isolation kit (Applied Biosystems) following the manufacturer’s specifications. RNA concentration was determined using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies, Wilmington, DE, USA) and the RNA quality was assessed using an Agilent RNA 6000 nano kit on a 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The RNA was stored at −80°C. The microarrays used for this study were Human Gene 1·0 ST arrays (Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA) containing probe sets of approximately 26 000 genes. Generation of cDNA, biotin-labelled cRNA and GeneChip hybridization was performed by the RH Microarry Centre at Rigshospitalet (Copenhagen, Denmark).


TOMIOKA SATORU, KUBO EIJI, KOBAYASHI KANA, ARAI SHIGEYUKI, TAMURA YOSHIFURU, KURIBAYASHI EMIKO, CHANG WENXIU, UCHIDA Erlotinib in vitro SHUNYA Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Teikyo University, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: When to start hemdialysis remains a matter of debate. Too early or too late is neither optimal. Serum creatinine (Cr) is the only numerical indicator for the

start of hemodialysis decided by the committee of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. In this study, the appropriate start point for hemodialysis was investigated not only by serum Cr but also by other parameters including patients’ symptoms. Methods: Out of the 333 patients started on hemodialysis in our hospital between 2001 and 2006, we selected patients who received outpatient treatment for more than six months and whose serum Cr trends were linearly regressive. Patients with increased serum CRP were excluded. Finally, 78 patients were enrolled in the analysis. First, the two sets of data were prepared; one was the data at the start of hemodialysis and another date was one month previously. Logistic regression analysis was applied to reveal predictors. Results: In all cases, serum Cr was extracted as the most influencial predictor followed by serum sodium (Na) and serum β2 microglobulin (β2MG) for judging the

start point for hemodialysis. The discriminating ability by these three factors increased to 75% from 66% by serum Cr alone. In the sex-based analysis, only serum PS-341 mw Cr was significant in male while the serum

Na and β2MG levels were significant when serum Cr was excluded in female. Conclusion: Serum Cr is an appropriate parameter when to start hemodialysis. In addition, serum β2MG and serum Na are also influencial of factors especially in female. The optimal start point of hemodialysis may be determined by concidering multiple predictors rather than serum Cr alone, leading to more appropriate judgment. ARDHANY ARDITYO RAHMAT1,2,3, THAHA MOCHAMMAD1,2, YOGIANTORO MOHAMMAD1, YASUHIKO TOMINO3 1Nephrology and Hypertension Division, Department of Internal Medicine Faculty of Medicine Airlangga University, Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia; 2Institute of Tropical Disease, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia; 3Division of Nephrology, Juntendo School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in hemodialysis patients reaches 90–95%. Hyperhomocysteinaemia increased cardiovascular risk. Various therapies by supraphysiologic dose of folic acid, vitamin B6, and B12 failed to normalize the homocysteine level, especially in hemodialysis patients. Oral dose of 1200 mg N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to reduce plasma level of homocysteine. However, its effect in the form of capsule has not been investigated. Capsule dosage form is expected to reduce the strong smell of NAC and gastritis experienced by patients who take the effervescent tablet.

Initial investigations include full blood count, inflammatory mar

Initial investigations include full blood count, inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation

rate (ESR)], renal Hydroxychloroquine function such as epidermal growth factor receptor (eGFR) and serology to include anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. Inflammatory markers provide a non-specific tool for assessing inflammatory activity and monitoring treatment. Urinalysis detects proteinuria and haematuria which can be assessed further for red cell casts indicating active renal inflammation or a quantification of protein loss with a 24-h urine collection or protein : creatinine ratio. Urine infection should also be excluded. Liver function should be assessed prior to starting disease-modifying agents such as methotrexate. Ovarian function may

be assessed prior to cyclophosphamide in women of child-bearing age with measurements of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) [30] or anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels [31] to provide information prior to fertility counselling. Characteristic autoantibodies are formed towards enzymes and bactericidal proteins within the cytoplasmic granules of neutrophils and monocytes in a substantial proportion of patients with systemic vasculitis manifesting as Wegener’s granulomatosis, microscopic Palbociclib price polyangiitis and Churg–Strauss syndrome, as well as in patients with limited forms of these conditions. These include renal-limited necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis, subglottic stenosis and retrobulbar pseudotumour [15,32]. However, there is a cohort of patients with the same diseases who never manifest ANCA, which may represent an independent disease entity [33]. ANCA are demonstrated by a combination of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) screening techniques using whole leucocyte smears as substrate to certify the neutrophil-specific reactivity, followed by a form of solid phase assay using isolated autoantigen as target [e.g. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)][34]. Thus the mere identification of neutrophil-specific autoantibodies (NSA) by IIF does not

directly Cediranib (AZD2171) indicate the presence of ANCA [35]. ANCA divide into two main classes: C-ANCA or classical cytoplasmic ANCA (Fig. 1) and P-ANCA or perinuclear-staining ANCA (Fig. 2). The classical granular staining pattern (C-ANCA), seen initially by IIF in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis patients and Wegener’s granulomatosis patients, indicated clearly that the autoantigen was located in granules of neutrophils and monocytes, and the nature of the proteinase 3 (PR3) antigen was revealed [36] as well as its surface expression [37]. As is the case with other IIF screening techniques, the autoantigen may differ even if the staining pattern is the same. International collaborative studies have helped define the diagnostic value of combining ANCA by IIF and antigen-specific ELISA using PR3 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) antigens [38].

“M Ndung’u, W Härtig, F Wegner, J M Mwenda, R W C

“M. Ndung’u, W. Härtig, F. Wegner, J. M. Mwenda, R. W. C. Low, R. O. Akinyemi and R. N. Kalaria (2012) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology38, 487–499 Cerebral amyloid β(42) deposits and microvascular click here pathology in

ageing baboons Background: Previous studies have extensively reported the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide with carboxyl- and amino-terminal heterogeneity in cortical and cerebrovascular deposits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in non-human primates except baboons. Methods: We examined the immunocytochemical distribution of Aβ peptides and Aβ oligomers in brain tissue from three subspecies of 18- to 28-year-old baboons (Papio) and in other monkeys including the squirrel (Saimiri sciureus) and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) for comparison. Results: A general preponderance of Aβ(42) in parenchymal deposits and many vascular deposits in all cortical lobes was evident in the baboons. Aβ oligomeric immunoreactivity was also apparent like to amyloid plaques. We found that the amino acid sequence of the Aβ domain of the baboon amyloid precursor

protein is similar to that of man. In contrast to Aβ, immunoreactivity to hyperphosphorylated tau protein was largely intracellular and rare in these baboons. Brain tissues from squirrel and rhesus monkeys examined in parallel exhibited mostly vascular Neratinib chemical structure and parenchymal deposits containing Aβ(42) peptides. Our results were comparable to AD, but showed Pregnenolone that even in younger monkeys exhibiting few deposits, Aβ(42) was evident in both parenchymal deposits and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Perivascular amyloid deposits were frequent and often accompanied by microvascular abnormalities in the form of collapsed degenerated capillaries. Conclusions: Similar to other primates above and below in the phylogenetic order, our observations and evaluation of

the literature implicate pathogenicity of Aβ(42) peptide associated with microvascular degeneration in baboons. We suggest baboons are useful animals to investigate the dynamics of AD-related pathology. “
“Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating and necrotizing disorder of the CNS that mainly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord. The etiology is still uncertain; however, the discovery of serum anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody is becoming the center of attention, and a new hypothesis is emerging that NMO is essentially astrocytopathy provoked by this autoantibody. In this study, we focused on corpora amylacea (CA), glycoproteinaceous inclusions in astrocytic processes. We examined 57 lesions in nine cases of NMO spectrum disorder, and demonstrated that CA were phagocytized by macrophages in 42 lesions (74%) of eight cases, while phagocytized figures were not seen in unaffected areas. Phagocytized CA were frequently encountered in early-phase lesions still retaining myelin structures, while fewer or none were found in chronic destructive lesions.

16 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNE

16 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) data revealed that the age-adjusted prevalence of MS increased significantly from 24.9% in 1998, 29.2% in 2001, and 30.4% in 2005 to 31.3% in 2007.17 Among the five components of MS, the Gemcitabine nmr level of low HDL-cholesterol increased the most, by 13.8% over 10 years. Next was abdominal obesity, which increased by 8.7%, then hypertriglyceridemia, which increased by 4.9%. Lipid abnormality and abdominal obesity were major factors in increasing prevalence of MS in Koreans over 10 years, reflecting a Westernized diet pattern and sedentary lifestyle. In addition, obesity, which is the major factor in the development of

MS has become

a common problem in both children and adults. Hildrum et al.18 conducted a large Norwegian population-based study and found that the prevalence of MS was highly age-dependent. This was evident especially in women, with a sevenfold increase in prevalence from age groups 20–29 years to 80–89 years. In Korea, Kim et al.19 analyzed data from the third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES III). The prevalence of MS was 6.4 (95% CI 4.5–8.4) and 22.3 (95% CI 20.8–23.8) in adolescents and adults, respectively. Prevalence was lower in women and all age groups showed a significant gender difference, except for the 50–59 year age group; men had a higher prevalence than women for all age groups 10–49. DOK2 Afatinib mouse A rapid increase was observed in the 30–59 age group in both genders, (8.8 and 19.1% aged in the 30s; 16.5 and 29.7% aged in the 40s; and 36.4 and 39.1% aged in the 50s for women and men, respectively). Women had a higher prevalence in the 60-year and above age group. They also found that the obesity was closely correlated with a high risk of MS. There have been some data about the correlation between MS and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Well-known lifestyle factors, such as the consumption of food such

as meat and fat, are widely known high-risk factors of BPH. Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that, to a large extent, lifestyle factors associated with metabolism—including obesity, blood glucose, exercise, and diet—also contribute substantially to the development of these conditions.20 The clinical pathophysiologic background of MS is compounding; leading to neurological or vascular damages to the lower urinary tract (Fig. 1). These observations are important because they suggest the existence of modifiable pathways for BPH and LUTS that offer novel targets for prevention and treatment. Factors that increase or decrease the risk for BPH are also factors that increase or decrease the risk for MS (Table 1). BPH is the most common prostate disease in middle-aged and elderly men, and the risk of developing BPH increases with advancing age.

“Mycobacterium haemophilum is a rare isolate of non-tuberc

“Mycobacterium haemophilum is a rare isolate of non-tuberculous Mycobacterium which has been reported to affect immunocompromised

patients. We report a case of a 32-year-old renal transplant patient with M. haemophilum infection initially involving his left sinus which was treated with appropriate antimicrobial therapy for thirteen months. Two weeks after cessation of antibiotics the infection rapidly recurred in his skin and soft tissues of his hands and feet. This case highlights the difficult diagnostic and therapeutic implications of atypical infections in transplant find more patients. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of relapsed M. haemophilum infection in a renal transplant recipient. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in Australia occur at a rate of 1.8 cases per 100 000 population, and Mycobacterium haemophilum (MH) is a rare isolate of NTM that has been described with three cases in Victoria and twelve cases in Western Australia.[1] MH is acquired from the environment, especially from water sources and causes ulcerating skin and soft tissue infections and rarer presentations including septicaemia, pneumonitis and osteomyelitis.[2] Though, there are no published reports of human to human transmission, there have been over 120 cases of MH reported, predominantly in immunocompromised hosts with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or organ

transplants or immunocompetent children with lymphadenitis.[2, 3] We report a case of a renal transplant selleck products patient with MH infection initially involving his left sinus, and then rapidly recurring in his skin and soft tissues of his hands and feet following cessation of anti-microbial treatment. A 32-year-old Australian man with hypertension, aortic regurgitation and end-stage kidney disease secondary to IgA nephropathy, underwent living-related renal transplantation

in 2007. He received conventional immunosuppression with basiliximab induction followed by maintenance therapy with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporine and oral prednisolone. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II His postoperative course was complicated by a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) wound infection which was managed with 6 weeks of oral rifampicin and fusidic acid. Following an allograft biopsy at 10 weeks post transplant that demonstrated histological changes suggestive of calcineurin (CNI) toxicity, cyclosporine was substituted with sirolimus. Repeat allograft biopsy one month later showed changes of acute T-cell-mediated rejection Grade IB with atypical granulomatous inflammation. Immunostaining for bacteria, Mycobacterium and viral inclusion bodies were all negative. Sirolimus was then ceased and tacrolimus introduced as treatment for rejection. He continued on MMF and prednisolone with a serum creatinine of 200–250 μmol/L.

When the same experiments were performed in mice lacking i-protea

When the same experiments were performed in mice lacking i-proteasomes, there was accumulation of oxidized proteins, and higher levels of PF-02341066 purchase apoptosis; and in the EAE model, higher clinical scores of the disease. These data support the hypothesis that i-proteasomes play a protective role against toxic effects induced by protein aggregates formed when cells are subjected to the inflammatory millieu [81]. Nevertheless, the question of whether and how the UPR intersects with i-proteasomes remains open. Both conditions observed in the study (stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines and accumulation of misfolded proteins) are potential ER stressors. The protective role of UPR at the face of

protein overload triggered by the innate immune response appears to be conserved through HDAC inhibitor evolution.

In Caenorhabditis elegans, protective immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is dependent on PMK-1, an ortholog of the mammalian p38 MAP kinase [82]. Infection by P. aeruginosa causes ER stress, inducing XBP-1 splicing. Infection by these bacteria was lethal for a XBP-1 loss-of-function mutant. Surprisingly, the lethal outcome of the infection in XBP-1 mutants was reversed when PMK-1 was disrupted. Furthermore, hyperactivation of PMK-1 caused larval mortality on the XBP-1 mutants even in the absence of the pathogen. Unexpectedly, mutants for ATF6 and PEK1 (homologue during of PERK) developed normally and did not show a detrimental phenotype. The study concludes that although the innate response promotes resistance to this pathogen, it also represents a source of ER stress, demanding a compensatory

activity of the UPR for the development of C. elegans larvae [83]. This hypothesis is further supported by the observation that when C. elegans larvae were stimulated with a pore forming bacterial toxin, PMK-1 was activated as a defense mechanism. The UPR pathway was activated through IRE1/XBP-1 and ATF6. XBP-1 and ATF6 loss-of-function mutants were more susceptible to the toxin, in a SEK1– (MAPKK upstream of PMK-1) and PMK1-dependent manner [84] (Fig. 3). The first report showing that the XBP-1 transcription factor was highly expressed by pre-pro-B cell and plasma cell lines [52] rouse the interest to study the role of XBP-1 in B cell biology. XBP-1 is a necessary transcription factor for B cell terminal differentiation into plasma cells [85]. The disruption of XBP-1 in mice leads to mortality in uterus caused by anaemia due to liver hypoplasia [86]. XBP1−/−RAG2−/− chimera mice develop normally and with normal numbers of T and B lymphocytes. These animals present lower serum immunoglobulin levels when compared with their wild-type littermates. Nevertheless, there are no differences in proliferation and isotype class switch by XBP1-deficient B cells, and no defects in germinal centre formation in XBP1-deficient mice.

Knowing that macrophages express a membrane form of IL-18 extends

Knowing that macrophages express a membrane form of IL-18 extends beyond NK-cell biology and into a broad spectrum of how we view and interpret IL-18. The author thanks M.

G. Netea and L. A. Joosten for helpful discussions in the preparation of this editorial. Supported by NIH Grants AI-15614, AR-45584, and CA-04 6934. The author declares no conflict of interest. “
“Clostridium sordellii causes endometrial infections, but little is known regarding host defenses against this pathogen. We tested the hypothesis that the immunoregulatory lipid prostaglandin (PG) E2 suppresses human macrophage clearance of C. sordellii through receptor-induced increases in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The THP-1 macrophage cell www.selleckchem.com/Proteasome.html line was used to quantify C. sordellii

phagocytosis. PGE2 increased cAMP levels, activated protein kinase A (PKA), and inhibited the class A scavenger receptor-dependent phagocytosis of C. sordellii. Activation of the EP2 this website and EP4 receptors increased intracellular cAMP and inhibited phagocytosis, with evidence favoring a more important role for EP4 over EP2. This was supported by EP receptor expression data and the use of pharmacological receptor antagonists. In addition, the PKA isoform RI appeared to be more important than RII in mediating the suppression of ingestion of C. sordellii. The endogenous lipid mediator PGE2 impairs human innate immune responses against C. sordellii. Clostridium sordellii is

an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus that is found in the environment and is an uncommon cause of human infection. However, infections caused by toxigenic strains of C. sordellii can be severe due to the occurrence of a treatment-refractory toxic shock syndrome.[1] Women of reproductive age are at increased risk of C. sordellii infections (including endometritis) that complicate childbirth, abortion, and gynecological procedures.[2] Despite aggressive medical and surgical treatment, the mortality of C. sordellii infections has remained high.[1] The development of better therapeutic options for C. sordellii infection is limited by a lack of understanding of fundamental host–microbial interactions involved in the pathogenesis of infection. Macrophages are important sentinels of these innate immunity in the soft tissues and have been implicated as critical cellular participants in host defense against tissue-invasive clostridial infection.[3-5] It was recently reported that macrophage phagocytosis of vegetative C. sordellii was mediated by class A scavenger receptors, particularly the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO).[6] It was also demonstrated that misoprostol, a pharmacological analog of E-series prostaglandins (PG), could impair the phagocytosis of C. sordellii by rodent macrophages.[7] This suggested that immune surveillance and clearance of C.

66 In contrast,

soluble PD-1 binding to B7-H1 and/or B7-D

66 In contrast,

soluble PD-1 binding to B7-H1 and/or B7-DC on DCs inhibited their maturation and induced IL-10 production, thus promoting a more suppressive phenotype.67 Together, these results demonstrate Metformin that signals delivered through B7-H1/-DC affect APCs; however, the downstream effect of these signals vary, and it is unclear what dictates the outcome of reverse signals because these effects have been studied with isolated cell populations in vitro. Decidual stromal cells express class I MHC and can express class II MHC in vitro after treatment with proinflammatory cytokines, therefore raising the possibility that they can present antigen. These cells lack the costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 but express B7-H1 and B7-DC.25,68In vitro, it was found that decidual stromal cells could stimulate an allogeneic reaction from unrelated CD4+ T cells, a response that was kept in check by B7-H1 and B7-DC.68 The potential role of these cells in controlling an immune response during pregnancy poses an interesting question that warrants further investigation. For example, they might play a role in local control of T-cell responses to infection by presenting foreign antigen, with the inhibitory B7s tailoring cytokine production to an appropriate balance for the maternal–fetal environment.

Whether or not these cells could present fetal antigen and play BMN 673 research buy a role in tolerance to the fetus has not yet been investigated. In the human placenta, B7-H1 is expressed

by all trophoblast populations.25,69 Its expression is increased during placental development, possibly attributed to the increases in oxygen levels from the first to the second trimester concurrent with the influx of maternal blood to the placenta.70 In addition, syncytiotrophoblast expresses more B7-H1 than does cytotrophoblast, its immediate precursor. Treatment with epidermal growth factor in vitro, which promotes syncytialization, recapitulates this effect by the post-transcriptional mechanism of shifting mRNA to the polysomes.44 This mechanism of regulation is in line with learn more B7-H1 expression being regulated post-transcriptionally, which is likely, as mentioned previously, based on the broad distribution of its mRNA compared with the more restricted expression of B7-H1 protein. Although B7-H1 is occasionally expressed by placental macrophages (M. Petroff, unpublished observations), the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast cells are the major sources of the protein at the human maternal–fetal interface. Our laboratory has identified PD-1 expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ TRegs isolated from the decidua. Using a human choriocarcinoma cell line transfected with B7-H1, we showed that B7-H1 promotes Th2 but suppresses Th1 cytokine production by decidual lymphocytes.71 These results highlight an interesting conundrum regarding B7-H1 function in trophoblast cells.