, 2000; Soares and Giglio, 2003) These results show that His48 i

, 2000; Soares and Giglio, 2003). These results show that His48 is essential for the hydrolysis of phospholipids and that these pharmacological effects are dependent, even partially, of the catalytic activity ( Soares and Giglio, 2003). A photochemically induced model of arterial thrombosis in mice was used to determine the antithrombotic activity of PLA2in vivo (LmrTX). The process of thrombosis after the injection of rose bengal (dye) is related to the formation of reactive oxygen species from the stimulation of the dye by laser light, leading to endothelial injury. The laser remains on until the thrombus

formation, and the blood flow is monitored by an ultrasound probe. When we compared control animals with animals that received the LmrTX, the time required to the thrombus formation (occlusion time = zero blood flow) was extended by approximately 40 min. PLA2 enzymes Screening Library research buy interfere with several physiological processes, including platelet aggregation. LmrTX produced a partial inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced selleck compound aggregation in washed platelets. PLA2 enzymes can inhibit platelet aggregation by physical destruction of the integrity of the platelet membrane via hydrolysis of the membrane phospholipids, which could affect the functions of receptors that play important roles in platelet aggregation (Kini and Evans,

1997). As platelet aggregation was performed with mice washed platelets, probably the mechanism of action of LmrTx is through its interaction with the platelet membrane. The data of the primary structure, together with the results of the anticoagulant activity (APTT) in vitro and ex vivo, lead us

to infer that this enzyme can be classified as a PLA2 with anticoagulant activity related on its catalytic activity. In conclusion, the results strongly suggest that LmrTX exerts its anticoagulant effect thought intrinsic pathway (interaction with coagulation factors of this way) or by enzymatically hydrolyzing the plasma phospholipids. However, further experiment of interaction of LmrTX with coagulation factors are necessary for better understanding of action mechanism of this enzyme in cascade coagulation. The author declares that Liothyronine Sodium there are no conflicts of interest. We acknowledge the Mass spectrometry Laboratory at Brazilian Biosciences National laboratory, CNPEM-ABTLUS, Campinas, Brazil, for their support with the mass spectrometric analyses. The authors thank Mr. Paulo A. Baldasso for general technical assistance. This work was supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP (Process 09/02299-8) and is part of Post-Doctoral project by Daniela Carla da Silva Damico and FAPESP (2010/19916-7) to Claudio Chrysostomo Werneck. “
“The aggressive wandering spider Phoneutria nigriventer is responsible for several hundreds of human accidents in Brazil every year.

, 2004 and Rübe et al , 2010) In the study by Rübe et al (2010)

, 2004 and Rübe et al., 2010). In the study by Rübe et al. (2010), it took several hours for γ-H2AX foci to disappear in lung tissue of ATM+/+ wild-type mice after single-dose irradiation with 2 Gy. Thus, the γ-H2AX signal exhibits considerably longer persistence in the nucleus than the PAR signal with the possibility of DNA damage signal accumulation and more precise damage differentiation. Interestingly, γ-H2AX was the only marker in the present study which significantly correlated with cell death markers in BAL and lung wet weight. In this http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html context, it has to be kept in mind that γ-H2AX may also be involved in apoptosis and γ-H2AX

foci may also occur as repair intermediates and during replication. It would thus be interesting to compare these data with apoptosis and proliferation data of the same lung tissue paraffin blocks. In contrast

to PAR, γ-H2AX correlated with the inflammation score only when individual animal data were used. Probably, it is less likely that a low level of inflammation induced by particle treatment results in damage-dependent γ-H2AX foci formation than in DNA single-strand breaks. All in all, γ-H2AX was demonstrated to be a reliably detectable and sensitive genotoxicity marker. 8-OH-dG is a pre-mutagenic ICG-001 molecular weight base modification directly induced by oxidative DNA insults. The expression pattern of 8-OH-dG in the particle-treated animals was also somehow comparable to the pattern of tumor incidence. In addition, numbers of 8-OHdG-positive nuclei correlated very well with the inflammation score, both when comparing data Glycogen branching enzyme from individual animals and group means. Cell death parameters measured in BAL and lung wet weight did not significantly correlate with levels of 8-OHdG-positive nuclei. In summary, 8-OH-dG seems to be a suitable marker for oxidative DNA damage in lung tissue due to particle exposure and like PAR indicates MNP-induced inflammation

with ongoing ROS release. Like γ-H2AX, 8-OH-dG also seems to exhibit some prognostic value concerning particle-dependent tumor development. However, as Totsuka et al. (2009) demonstrated occurrence of other oxidative guanine modifications than 8-OH-dG after Printex® 90 administration in gpt delta-transgenic mice, it has to be kept in mind that 8-OH-dG is only one well characterized and easily detectable representative of a wide panel of oxidative lesions, and oxidative DNA damage might be underestimated when using solely 8-OH-dG as oxidative DNA damage marker. In the present study, the inducible repair protein OGG1 proved to be a more complex genotoxicity marker than PAR, γ-H2AX, and 8-OH-dG. Expression of OGG1 was noted in both nucleus and cytoplasm. The occurrence of OGG1-positive cytoplasm, which showed a granular pattern, may represent induction of OGG1 expression in the mitochondrial compartment and may thus point to compartment-related particle-induced oxidative stress.

A drill with a small burr attachment was used to introduce a 1 mm

A drill with a small burr attachment was used to introduce a 1 mm hole into the skull to allow entry for a Hamilton syringe (5 µL) to inject this website the test article, either IgG1 N434A or IgG1 H435A into the brain (antibodies were dosed in pH-neutral buffers (pH 7.4), unless otherwise stated). For unilateral administration a 1.2 µL bolus of test article (2.0 µg/µL) was administered at a rate of 0.4 µL/min (total

dose=2.4 µg, or 14 µmol/L). For bilateral administration the volume administered to each side was halved (0.6 µL); therefore, the total dose administered was equal to the unilateral administration. Care was taken to perform the surgical procedure following aseptic techniques and a surgical plane of anesthesia was maintained throughout the entire procedure. The incisions of animals were closed and the animals were allowed to recover from anesthesia following the 5 min baseline blood draw.

Animals were given isoflurane to facilitate retro-orbital blood draws of approx 100 µL. All blood samples were allowed to stand for at least 30 min, but no longer than 1 h, centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 15 min and the serum separated and stored at −80 °C. Following the final blood collection a full body perfusion was performed to remove residual blood from the brain via cardiac puncture using 60 mL (15 mL/min, syringe pump) of a PBS solution containing protease inhibitors (1 tablet/10 mL, Complete Mini, Roche, Indianapolis, IN, USA) and 5 mM EDTA. Following Panobinostat cell line perfusion, the anterior cervical lymph nodes were removed and placed in FastPrep tubes. The head was then decapitated and the brain removed and halved into

two hemispheres (excluding the olfactory bulbs), brainstem (hypothalamus to level of cistern magna of hindbrain), and cerebellum. The olfactory epitheliums were collected following intranasal-to-CNS administration only. Brain tissues were placed into pre-weighed lysis Matrix D tubes (MP Biomedical, Cat# 6913-500) or IKA tubes (IKA Cat# 3703100) then re-weighed and quickly frozen on dry ice and stored at −80 °C until homogenization. Brain Digestive enzyme hemispheres were homogenized in 1:10 homogenization buffer (assume 1 g of tissue is 1 mL volume) (TBS 25 mM Tris [pH 7.8], 150 mM NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, 5 mM EDTA and cOmplete, EDTA-free Protease Inhibitor Cocktail Tablets [1 tablet/10 mL]). The brain hemispheres were thawed and homogenized in buffer solution using an IKA instrument (Ultra Turrax, IKA Cat# 3645001) (setting# 6, 20 s). The left and right olfactory epithelia were diluted in the same homogenization buffer, and homogenized using the Bio101 FastPrep instrument (6.5 m/s; 40 s). Full length IgG in the brain and tissue samples was quantified within 24 h of homogenization. Full-length IgG antibodies were quantified using the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) electrochemiluminescent assay. The mAbs used in this study were a recombinant chimeric human IgG1 monoclonal antibody specific for human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

Outcomes of a New Nursing Home Weekend Call Program on Emergency

Outcomes of a New Nursing Home Weekend Call Program on Emergency Department Referrals and Hospital Re-admission Rates Presenting Author: Renee M. Banaszak, MD East Carolina University, Department

of Family Medicine, Division of Geriatrics Author(s): Renee M. Banaszak, MD, Joon Tae Lee, MD, Daree Russell, MD, and Kenneth Steinweg, MD Background: The Department of Family Medicine (DOFM) at Vidant Medical Center is the largest provider of Nursing Home PI3K inhibitor (NH) services in Greenville, NC. The average daily NH census is approximately 180 patients located in four different facilities. The challenge with managing such a large pool of patients is in providing continuous call coverage while minimizing unnecessary health care expenditures for emergency room visits and hospital re-admissions. In previous years, NH weekend and holiday calls were taken by a senior Family Medicine resident who was simultaneously managing the DOFM inpatient service and taking afterhours calls from the outpatient practice. This posed a significant degree of patient care on that one individual and resulted in the resident having Vemurafenib little time for NH patient management. The end result was the inability to make on-site visits to the nursing homes to address immediate concerns, which likely resulted in more ER visits and readmissions. Objective/Aim: To determine if specified staff, available only for NH consultations by phone and onsite visits during weekends

and holidays, would substantially reduce

the number of ER visits, lower hospital readmission rates and reduce associated costs. Quality Improvement Methods: A two year study was designed to determine if this on-call team, consisting of Geriatric Fellows, PA’s and FNP’s, would be able to reduce hospitalizations and thereby reduce cost. Each on call provider was free of other duties and available to make on-site visits if needed and had access to the office and hospital electronic record from home. All calls were logged and analyzed on an individual basis from Gefitinib price May 1, 2010 to April 30, 2012. Each provider made note if their instructions by phone or an onsite visit avoided an emergency room visit or hospital admission. Conclusion: The provision of dedicated medical professionals to weekend and holiday NH call coverage provided better continuity of care for a large practice of NH patients, resulted in low utilization of ER and hospital services, a provided substantial cost savings to the health care system. Author Disclosures: Renee M. Banaszak, MD has stated there are no financial disclosures to be made that are pertinent to this abstract. “
“It is with profound regret that we report the death of Professor RB (Bob) Clark, the founder and long time editor of The Marine Pollution Bulletin. He died quietly at his home on 28th September 2013, shortly before his 90th Birthday. He is survived by his wife Sue, daughter Juliet, son Stephen and his grandson Gus.

5 mM Ca2 +, 10 mM glucose and 0 1% BSA at room temperature one ho

5 mM Ca2 +, 10 mM glucose and 0.1% BSA at room temperature one hour prior to the experiment. This time is required to restore the activity of the Ca2 + pump at a sub-physiological

temperature and to provide substrates for glycolytic enzymes. Most artefacts arise from the lack of attention to these factors. The composition of incubation media varies markedly between experiments. The impact of oxidation, methaemoglobinemia, phosphatidyl serine (PS) exposure and other Galunisertib research buy membrane-related events, as well as that of the addition of ion transport inhibitors (e.g., vanadate often present during Ca2 + uptake measurements, see Fig. 2A), on the cell morphology, ion content, redox state and metabolic status may be dramatic, but it has rarely been taken into account. The redox status of the cells

is an important parameter to control. Oxidation has a profound effect on metabolism, regulation of cell volume, and cytoskeletal structure. Reducing cell deformability induces Ca2 + entry, leading to PS exposure, membrane blebbing and eventually premature cell death.31 Nevertheless, it was also shown that oxidation may activate anion channels, mimicking pathways that are activated upon malaria infection.[32] and [33] Even if the threshold seems to be rather high, the oxidation level might be high enough in some cells to trigger artificial responses in some protocols. learn more Most importantly, throughout their lifetime, RBCs are continuously exposed to high oxidative stress. Oxidative defence capacities may decrease with RBC aging,34 and senescent RBCs show alterations (e.g., increased denaturation of haemoglobin, membrane binding of hemichromes and free iron, aggregation of band 3 protein, deposition of antibodies and complement fragments, PS exposure) similar to those of oxidised cells.[35] and [36] Facilitated

ageing occurring under conditions of shear stress (e.g., in aminophylline patients with polycythaemia) is also associated with oxidative stress.37 Furthermore, storage of RBCs results in progressive oxidative stress and loss of reduced glutathione along with ATP deprivation. For that reason experimental observations obtained using RBCs from a blood bank may differ significantly from those generated using freshly withdrawn blood. Further support comes from whole-cell patch-clamp experiments reporting oxidation induced anion selective currents.[32], [38] and [39] Sufficient levels of glucose, a lack of Ca2 + overload and shear stress are essential for maintenance of the glutathione pool. Recent studies revealed that some plasma components are required for eNOS to function.

Panicle weight was positively related to SP and GW for both years

Panicle weight was positively related to SP and GW for both years. Conventional path coefficient analysis determines the contribution of various factors by partitioning the correlation coefficients into components of direct and indirect effects (Fig. 2). Analysis of multi-colinearity SD-208 in vitro indicated inconsistent patterns of relationships among the variables. For example, in 2007, PN and PW showed both positive and high direct effects on GY, whereas in 2008 the direct effect of PN on GY was negative. In addition to inconsistent patterns for direct effects, high multi-colinearity

was observed for some traits (Table 4), particularly for those showing high direct effects, such as PW (VIF = 164.03 for 2007 and 90.95 for 2008). The mean direct effects estimated from a set of 200 bootstrap samples were in close agreement with the observed direct effects of various traits (Table 5). All the direct effects were significant based on t-test. Panicle number per square meter and PW, as first-order variables, accounted for nearly 94% of the variation in GY in both 2007 and 2008 ( Table 5), and both variables displayed high and positive direct effects on GY. The direct path coefficient of PN was higher in 2007 but lower in 2008 than PW ( Fig. 2).

The correlation between PN and PW was significant and LBH589 research buy negative. These results indicate that both PN and PW influence GY and PN and PW influence each other. The path analysis of second-order variables over the first-order variable showed that 90.9% in 2007 and 82.3% in 2008 of the total variation for PN were explained by MT and PR

( Table 5). The path coefficients of MT were higher than those of PR in both 2007 and 2008, showing that PN was determined mainly by MT. Panicle weight was dependent on SP, SFP, and GW, and the coefficients of determination were 0.982 and 0.985 in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The path coefficients for all three traits were significant for both years (P < 0.0.1) in the order SP > GW > SFP. These results demonstrate that rice cultivars with large panicles and grain Cyclooxygenase (COX) could improve PW. To elucidate the difference in yield-related traits over years and sites, two rice cultivars with high-yield potentials, II You 107 and Xieyou 107, were planted in Taoyuan and Nanjing from 2006 to 2008 (Experiment 2). The GY was virtually identical for both cultivars, but yield-related traits, including GW, SP, and PN, were significantly different (P < 0.01). For II You 107, a standard large-panicle cultivar, SP was greater than 200, more than 1.3-fold that of Xieyou 107. Conversely, for Xieyou 107, a standard heavy-panicle variety, PN and grain size were larger than those of II You 107. For both cultivars, GY varied greatly across sites. At Taoyuan, the GY of II You 107 was 17.7 t ha− 1, and the GY of Xieyou 107 was 17.0 t ha− 1. At Nanjing, the GY for II You 107 was 1.92-fold lower and the GY for Xieyou 107 was 1.83-fold lower than the values recorded at Taoyuan.

18 Further research is required, however, to validate these thres

18 Further research is required, however, to validate these thresholds in adults with CP. In agreement with previous

research,15 WHR was associated with a number of cardiometabolic risk factors. The relative predictive power of WHR, however, was not as high as that of WC. The predictive power of WHR in adults with CP may be influenced by its association with gross motor function. This association was a result of the inverse relationship between hip circumference and GMFCS level—an expected relationship considering the positive correlation between hip circumference, gluteal muscle, and total leg muscle mass.30 Although some amount of muscle atrophy is present in all adults with CP, gluteal and total leg muscle mass particularly Mdm2 inhibitor atrophy in nonambulatory adults.31 As well as being associated with gross motor function, WHR is more difficult to assess and a less reliable measure than WC in the general population.32 Difficulty with obtaining hip circumference measurements from nonambulatory participants or participants with significant contractures may also increase the potential for error when measuring WHR in adults with CP. In contrast, WC is a simple and feasible measure to take on ambulatory Dabrafenib in vivo and nonambulatory adults in a clinical setting. This study

has a number of limitations. Primarily, the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow causality to be inferred. In addition, the studied sample was relatively small and may have influenced the estimate of cardiometabolic risk. There is currently no CP register in the Republic of Ireland, and the majority of rehabilitative services are provided only until age 18 years. Despite every effort being made to recruit adults with CP for this study, the low response rate may have resulted in selection bias. In particular, adults with an interest in health promotion may have been more likely to participate. Because information was not available on adults who did not respond to the recruitment efforts, comparisons oxyclozanide cannot be made between responders and nonresponders. However, it should be noted that the sample

size is similar to other studies of adults with CP. In addition, the small sample size did not allow for adjustment for gender when conducting ROC curve analysis. Only WC and WHR, however, are known to be associated with gender, and it is unlikely that performing separate analyses would change the order of the outcome. The results of the ROC curve analysis were also supported by the results of the regression analysis, which was adjusted for gender. Although an attempt was made to detect differences in cardiometabolic outcomes between ambulatory and nonambulatory adults, it is also possible that the sample size was not adequate to detect between-group differences. The results of this study indicate that relatively young adults with CP have clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors.

From another perspective, an established state of cross-modal sen

From another perspective, an established state of cross-modal sensory adaptation may in fact impair the ability of an implant to elicit simple phosphenes at all, in favor of phantom perceptions related to extra-visual sensory cortices,

e.g. touch Adriamycin cell line (Kupers et al., 2006, Merabet et al., 2007 and Ptito et al., 2008a). More research needs to be done to determine the impact of neuroplasticity on the likely performance of an implant in the long term, or conversely any negative influence of the implant on the recipients׳ adaptations to blindness. The implantation of penetrating cortical electrode arrays is a major neurosurgical procedure. As with any surgery involving the opening of the skull and intradural space, there is a demonstrable risk of acute and longer-term complications resulting in a poor surgical and clinical outcome. These risks include but are not limited to postoperative hemorrhage, swelling, tissue infarction, infection, seizures and neurological deficits, each of which may delay or preclude progressing

to the implant testing stage (discussed in more detail in Section 6.2). A key component to minimizing these risks will be the selection of candidate recipients in whom the burden of comorbidities known to negatively impact on neurosurgical outcomes is acceptably low. For example, the risk of postoperative bleeding is increased by hypertension, diabetes and coagulopathy Palbociclib supplier (Seifman et al., 2011). Poor nutritional status due to advanced age, malignancy or obesity may increase the risk of infection (Walcott et al., 2012), and preoperative screening for MRSA colonization may be helpful in avoiding a complicated postoperative course in the event of infection (Harrop et al., 2012). Patients with a history of epilepsy are innately at greater risk of suffering postoperative seizures, and should be excluded (Weiss and Post,

2011). The complexity and experimental status of the implant procedure and rehabilitation SPTLC1 process dictates that obtaining informed consent, for which a detailed discussion of surgical risks is required, will need to be undertaken carefully to ensure a thorough understanding by potential recipients. The mental health and capacity of a potential recipient is therefore of paramount importance in this context, as it may potentially impact on the treating physician׳s ability to ensure that a truly informed consent can be obtained (Lane et al., 2012 and Merabet et al., 2007). Moreover, it may impact on the perception of the soundness of potential recipients׳ motivation to participate, or the likelihood of effective rehabilitation (Dagnelie, 2008 and Merabet et al., 2007). Lane et al.

Although the climate and land use change scenario impacts yielded

Although the climate and land use change scenario impacts yielded relatively low increases of 2% and

Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor 4% in the annual streamflow of the Brahmaputra River, the large variations in seasonal streamflow relative to the baseline were predicted by the SWAT model, confirming that the seasonal variability would increase as a result of changes in climate and land use (Table 6). Streamflow was predicted to decrease by 6% during the pre-monsoon months of February through April, and decrease by 19% and 20% during the early monsoon months of May through July under the A1B and A2 scenarios, respectively. These results agreed with the findings of Immerzeel et al. (2010) for the A1B scenario, but contradicted the findings of Gain et al. (2011), who predicted increased streamflow in all seasons for both A1B and A2 scenarios. The predicted decrease in streamflow during the dry period implied selleck kinase inhibitor that the effects of ET become more pronounced than glacial melt and snowmelt during the dry period. In contrast, compared to the baseline

scenario, streamflow was projected to increase by 14% and 18% during August through October and by 21% and 28% during November through January under the A1B and A2 scenarios, respectively (Table 6). The greatest differences were predicted to occur during the peak monsoon months of July and August. July streamflow was predicted to decrease by 19% (47,113–38,082 m3 s−1) and 20% (47,113–37,490 m3 s−1), and August streamflow was predicted to increase 12% (48,838–54,739 m3 s−1) and 16% (48,838–56,761 m3 s−1) under the A1B and A2 scenarios, respectively, compared to the baseline. These changes agree with the findings of previous research (Immerzeel, 2008) under the A2 scenario. The streamflow between November and

January was predicted to increase from an average of 9913–12,038 m3 s−1, and 12,727 m3 s−1 under the A1B and A2 scenarios, respective increases of 21% and 28% compared to the baseline. The winter streamflow was also predicted to increase in the Brahmaputra basin under the A1B and A2 scenarios (Gain et al., 2011). These relatively large predicted increases during the winter months could possibly be the result of increased snowmelt and more precipitation either in the form of rainfall due to the increase in winter temperature. Similar climate change impacts in winter streamflow were also reported for the upper Mississippi River basin in the United States (Jha et al., 2006). The substantial projected increases in water yield, soil water content, and streamflow as impacts of climate and land use change yielded increased groundwater recharge in the Brahmaputra basin (Fig. 6f). The groundwater recharge was predicted to increase by 47% and 49% annually under the A1B and A2 scenarios, respectively (Table 6).

This might hint at a more general function of this redox protein,

This might hint at a more general function of this redox protein, independent of a circadian clock. As LdpA is suggested to transfer redox signals from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to the circadian oscillator in S. elongatus ( Ivleva et al., Bcl-2 inhibitor 2005), LdpA could be a general component of the photosynthetic machinery in Cyanobacteria. Because UCYN-A lacks photosystem II ( Bothe et

al., 2010, Thompson et al., 2012, Tripp et al., 2010 and Zehr et al., 2008), LdpA would be dispensable and explains the absence of an LdpA homolog. PexA as another component of the input machinery is present only in a limited number of the marine Cyanobacteria analyzed here and could constitute a transcription factor, which might target also genes that are not related to the circadian clock. The existence of three well-conserved pex genes in the Acaryochloris genome supports this idea. Regarding the output components of the clockwork, variability between the cyanobacterial strains seems to be not as evident as for the central oscillator and the input components. All species listed in Table 1 (except for Gloeobacter) hold, besides KaiC, a putative SasA and a RpaA protein that are similar in length to the respective S. elongatus proteins (400 aa and 350 aa, respectively). Thus, the KaiC-SasA-RpaA signaling cascade described earlier appears to play a key role in gene expression regulation in Cyanobacteria. Intriguingly, even Ruxolitinib supplier Gloeobacter

holds a putative RpaA protein. This suggests that RpaA can be activated via other non-circadian signaling pathways Liothyronine Sodium as it has already been suggested for S. elongatus ( Taniguchi et al., 2010). As described above, besides the SasA-dependent pathway, two other pathways have been identified that convert temporal information

into gene expression patterns. First, the LabA-dependent negative pathway exists, which appears to function by repressing the RpaA activity (Taniguchi et al., 2007 and Taniguchi et al., 2010). The mechanism of action has not yet been clarified. Second, the CikA-dependent negative pathway was uncovered in which CikA acts as a phosphatase that dephosphorylates RpaA (Gutu and O’Shea, 2013). Therefore, the two histidine kinases CikA with its dual role in input and output and SasA with its key output role work antagonistically to time the activation of circadian gene expression (Gutu and O’Shea, 2013). The combination of three different output pathways by SasA, CikA and LabA, all functioning through RpaA as a downstream element, likely secures the robustness of the circadian kaiBC expression ( Taniguchi et al., 2010). It might as well confer the opportunity for some fine tuning. Seven of the species listed in Table 1 contain both LabA and CikA and are hence possibly able to use the advantage of robust regulation by two independent negative feedback mechanisms. However, three marine organisms included in Table 1 do not possess a LabA protein and three lack a CikA homolog.