Panicle weight was positively related to SP and GW for both years. Conventional path coefficient analysis determines the contribution of various factors by partitioning the correlation coefficients into components of direct and indirect effects (Fig. 2). Analysis of multi-colinearity SD-208 in vitro indicated inconsistent patterns of relationships among the variables. For example, in 2007, PN and PW showed both positive and high direct effects on GY, whereas in 2008 the direct effect of PN on GY was negative. In addition to inconsistent patterns for direct effects, high multi-colinearity

was observed for some traits (Table 4), particularly for those showing high direct effects, such as PW (VIF = 164.03 for 2007 and 90.95 for 2008). The mean direct effects estimated from a set of 200 bootstrap samples were in close agreement with the observed direct effects of various traits (Table 5). All the direct effects were significant based on t-test. Panicle number per square meter and PW, as first-order variables, accounted for nearly 94% of the variation in GY in both 2007 and 2008 ( Table 5), and both variables displayed high and positive direct effects on GY. The direct path coefficient of PN was higher in 2007 but lower in 2008 than PW ( Fig. 2).

The correlation between PN and PW was significant and LBH589 research buy negative. These results indicate that both PN and PW influence GY and PN and PW influence each other. The path analysis of second-order variables over the first-order variable showed that 90.9% in 2007 and 82.3% in 2008 of the total variation for PN were explained by MT and PR

( Table 5). The path coefficients of MT were higher than those of PR in both 2007 and 2008, showing that PN was determined mainly by MT. Panicle weight was dependent on SP, SFP, and GW, and the coefficients of determination were 0.982 and 0.985 in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The path coefficients for all three traits were significant for both years (P < 0.0.1) in the order SP > GW > SFP. These results demonstrate that rice cultivars with large panicles and grain Cyclooxygenase (COX) could improve PW. To elucidate the difference in yield-related traits over years and sites, two rice cultivars with high-yield potentials, II You 107 and Xieyou 107, were planted in Taoyuan and Nanjing from 2006 to 2008 (Experiment 2). The GY was virtually identical for both cultivars, but yield-related traits, including GW, SP, and PN, were significantly different (P < 0.01). For II You 107, a standard large-panicle cultivar, SP was greater than 200, more than 1.3-fold that of Xieyou 107. Conversely, for Xieyou 107, a standard heavy-panicle variety, PN and grain size were larger than those of II You 107. For both cultivars, GY varied greatly across sites. At Taoyuan, the GY of II You 107 was 17.7 t ha− 1, and the GY of Xieyou 107 was 17.0 t ha− 1. At Nanjing, the GY for II You 107 was 1.92-fold lower and the GY for Xieyou 107 was 1.83-fold lower than the values recorded at Taoyuan.