Together, these findings suggest that ILT–vStr projections are necessary and sufficient for the expression of social avoidance. In line with previous work on the role of PFC activity in depression-like behavior, chronic tToxin-mediated inhibition of PFC projections was pro-susceptible. Surprisingly,
the more specific, rapid optogenetic inhibition of PFC–vStr glutamatergic terminals failed to induce social avoidance. This indicates that PFC-mediated resilience may require sustained activation of PFC–NAc terminals or the activity of other PFC terminal projections outside the striatum. While ATM Kinase Inhibitor purchase the PFC may provide a promising target for promoting resilience to stress, further research is needed to fully elucidate (1) the particular anatomical and physiological parameters
of pro-resilient PFC activity, and (2) whether allostatic mechanisms maintain normal PFC–vStr firing patterns in resilient animals to prevent pathological changes in reward circuit activity. With the exception of the rapidly acting antidepressant ketamine and the advent of deep brain stimulation paradigms to treat depression, both of which are limited to severe, treatment resistant cases of depression, there has been a decades long void of new treatment options for depression and anxiety. However, the future of treatment and research is hardly dire. Modern research on stress-related disorders has yielded numerous potential targets and biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment, largely due to an enhanced selleck inhibitor focus on alternatives to monoamine-based mechanisms, such as epigenetic mechanisms, immune-related factors, sex, and the biology of resilience. Stress-related disorders, and resilience
to them, can be considered products of the coordinated activity of the brain and numerous bodily systems. The results of resilience research we’ve described here are particularly exciting as they offer an opportunity for personalized science and medicine. We’ve described potential targets Levetiracetam and biomarkers specific to type of stress (developmental vs. adulthood), sex, and inflammatory state. As women are more likely to suffer from mood disorders, the continuing identification of sex-based, pro-resilience markers may enable the development of more effective, sex specific treatments. The NIH-mandated inclusion of female subjects in research studies will hopefully encourage further elucidation of sex-based resilience. We feel that immune mechanisms are particularly promising as many potential targets are peripheral, removing the blood–brain barrier as a therapeutic obstacle. Preclinical experiments in our lab indicate that peripherally targeting IL-6 with monoclonal antibodies is antidepressant in mice (Hodes, G.E. et al., Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 542.10, 2013).