(c) 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda All rights reserved “

(c) 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.”
“Herbal medicine is becoming more and more popular and has been widely used in the world. However, the quality control is a major issue for different types of herbal products. In this study,

a combination of high performance liquid MK5108 purchase chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) analytical methods was successfully employed for the pharmaceutical analysis and quality control of herbal medicine. Five different brands of a popular Chinese herbal medicine “”Yin Qiao Jie Du”" tablets were chosen as the model products for the purpose of analysis and quality control. After optimization and validation, HPLC and GC methods were applied to quantify the contents of nonvolatile bioactive compounds glycyrrhizin, chlorogenic acid, and volatile ingredient menthol, respectively. The results revealed significant content variations of active ingredients among different brands of tablets. Glycyrrhizin ranges from 0 to 2.672 mg in one tablet, chlorogenic acid ranges from 0.416 to 2.453 mg, while menthol ranges from 0 to 0.1666 mg, indicating different quality of the same product

from various manufacturers. This study demonstrated that the combination of HPLC and GC methods can be used to quantify both the nonvolatile and volatile active ingredients in herbal medicines and thus control their quality.”
“The dynamics AZD1208 chemical structure of the magnetization selleck switching in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) designed for spin-transfer-torque (STT) magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) was investigated using micromagnetic simulations. It was found that for short pulses (< similar to 10 ns), the switching current threshold does not correlate with the switching field threshold and it is, therefore, essentially insensitive to MTJ shape (aspect ratio) and edge roughness. However, if the magnetization reversal is thermally activated for longer pulses, the switching current and the switching field are directly correlated. For a relatively large MTJ, the

distribution is wide due to the excitation of high-order spin wave modes. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3059212]“
“Objective: To evaluate the cumulative incidence of dyslipidemia and fasting glucose impairment three years after initiating the first antiretroviral (ART) regimen and the association with the type of ART regimen in an AIDS outpatient clinic in Brazil.

Methods: Retrospective cohort of HIV-1 infected patients attending an outpatient HIV clinic in Vitoria, Brazil, between January/2010 and May/2011. Data, including blood pressure, dyslipidemia (high total cholesterol and low HDL-C), fasting glucose, and cardiovascular risk by Framingham Risk Score were abstracted from medical records from clinic visits six months prior and three years after starting ART.

The study showed that landscapes dominated by crops are more frag

The study showed that landscapes dominated by crops are more fragmented than landscapes dominated by pastures. These crop-dominated landscapes also presented a smaller number of fragments that could maintain populations of threatened mammal species in Cerrado. Regions with more preserved natural areas are in the northeast of Goias, where there are rough relief and soil unsuitable for agriculture. Our results indicate that croplands generate a landscape structure more damaging for the conservation of biodiversity in the Cerrado biome. Otherwise,

they support the importance to preserve natural remnants, even in areas occupied by agriculture, mainly due to its potential to maintain

ecosystem check details services, and suggest that landscapes dominated by pastures should have more current value for conservation, since they showed larger fragments. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We report measurement of electron-emission yield (EEY) under the impact of electrons on materials of Hall-effect-thruster (HET) interest: BN, BN-SiO(2), and Al(2)O(3). The effects of the material aging (under electron irradiation) on the yield of BN and Al(2)O(3) learn more are investigated. The EEY of BN grows with electron exposure, whereas that of Al(2)O(3) reduces. A simple analysis of our experimental results indicates that these variations are most likely because of surface and near surface composition changes caused by the electron beam. The representativeness of EEY measurements on ceramics that Selleck Bafilomycin A1 have not suffered from the specific environment of a HET (ion and electron bombardment) is discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3653820]“
“The introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate

cancer screening in the late 1980s led to an epidemic of prostate cancer, particularly in developed countries. However, the first valid reports from randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of screening were not published until 2009. Men in the screening group in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer were 20% less likely than those in the control group to die from prostate cancer. The absolute difference was only 0.7/1000, implying that over 1400 men needed to be screened to prevent one prostate cancer death. Screening was also associated with a 70% increased risk for being diagnosed with prostate cancer. The American Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial found no survival benefit for screening. Results were not conclusive because a substantial proportion of study subjects had previously undergone PSA testing, over half of the control group had PSA testing, follow-up was relatively short, and fewer than 100 subjects died from prostate cancer.

The aim of this study is to determine immunohistochemical

The aim of this study is to determine immunohistochemical

selleck and molecular characteristics of FTN-INPTCs. Methods : We investigated immunohistochemical features (galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19, fibronectin-1, CITED1), BRAF V600E mutation and RASSF1A promoter methylation status in 30 FTN-INPTC cases, along with 26 FVPTCs, 21 follicular adenomas (FAs) and 14 nodular hyperplasias (NHs). Results : Expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19 and CITED1 was significantly higher in FTN-INPTCs than in FAs or NHs, but expression of galectin-3, CK19 and fibronectin-1 was lower in FTN-INPTCs than in FVPTCs. The BRAF V600E mutation was not detected in the benign nodules or FTN-INPTCs, whereas 57% of FVPTCs had the mutation. RASSF1A promoter methylation was higher in FTN-INPTCs than in benign nodules but there was no difference between FTN-INPTCs and FVPTCs. Conclusions

: Our results represent the borderline immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics of FTN-INPTC. selleckchem We conclude that FTN-INPTC is an intermediate lesion between a benign nodule and a FVPTC, and that it is pathogenetically related to FVPTC.”

Based on the “”gate theory”" of pain transmission, pneumatic skin flattening (PSF) may reduce pain during laser hair removal.


To compare the pain, efficacy, and adverse effects after laser hair reduction using PSF with selleck products that using a dynamic cooling device (DCD) in Asians.


Twelve participants (skin types III-IV) received laser hair removal with a PSF device on the right axilla and DCD on the other side. Pain was assessed based on a visual analogue scale. Hair regrowth was rated based on photographs taken before treatment and in follow-up visits at 8 and 36 weeks.


Sixty-seven percent of participants felt less pain in the PSF side than the DCD side right after laser treatment. On a scale of 1 to 10, the immediate mean pain score was 5.7 +/- 2.0 for the PSF side and 6.5 +/- 1.5 for the DCD side (p=.09). Seventy-five percent of the participants preferred treatments with PSF. Efficacy

of hair reduction was similar on both sides 8 and 36 weeks after treatment.


PSF decreases pain sensation during laser hair removal while allowing higher energy densities in Asian patients. The equal efficacy and complication rate of PSF indicates that it is a feasible alternative to DCD at lower cost.

Candela Corp, Wayland, Massachusetts, loaned the pneumatic skin flattening device used for this study.”
“Background : The cytokine-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) plays a major role in liver fibrosis. Quiescent HSCs undergo phenotypic transformation called “”transdifferentiation”" in response to viral, chemical or immune insults to the liver. The cytokine TGF-beta 1 plays a key role in progressive liver fibrosis.

Due to the strong confinement at the Si/SiO(2) interface

Due to the strong confinement at the Si/SiO(2) interface

the leakage current in the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) regime mainly results from electron tunneling in the subband associated to the ground level E(0)(Delta 2). A simple FN model is therefore used to extract the Delta E(c) from the variation in the effective barrier height phi(FN)(b) between the Si film and the SiO(2) oxide. Based on this experimental and accurate extraction of Delta E(c), realistic values of the deformation potentials in Si are finally proposed. The final part of the paper discusses the different implications of this band offset Delta E(c) on device performance and reliability. It is demonstrated that strained devices exhibit reduced leakage currents and a superior reliability, in terms of interface state density and oxide breakdown, than unstrained devices. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI:

“Objective: An association CP-456773 clinical trial of Streptococcus bovis bacteremia with carcinoma of colon has been reported, but data regarding peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis caused by S. bovis is scarce. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics, associations, and outcomes of this disease entity.

Methods: The case records of patients with S. bovis PD peritonitis presenting to 2 renal centers between January SN-38 2000 and September 2010 were reviewed. Clinical features and outcomes were identified and analyzed.

Results: Of cultures from 23 episodes of S. bovis peritonitis in 20 patients (1.28% of all peritonitis episodes at our center), 19 (82.6%) showed S. bovis alone, and 4 (17.4%) showed mixed growth. In 7 episodes, the S. bovis was moderately resistant to penicillin G. Rates of resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin were 43.5% and 47.8% respectively. In 18 episodes (78.3%), a primary response was achieved with a first-generation cephalosporin and an aminoglycoside. In 4 episodes, a secondary response was achieved after a switch from cephalosporin to vancomycin, and in 1

episode with mixed growth, the Tenckhoff catheter had to be removed. Repeat peritonitis occurred in 3 patients at a mean of 50.0 months (range: 24.2 – 83.1 months).

Of the 20 patients of S. bovis peritonitis, 10 (50%) underwent either a barium enema or a colonoscopy. One patient had history of colonic carcinoma 2 years before EVP4593 clinical trial the peritonitis, and a subsequent work-up revealed no recurrence. Three patients had diverticulosis, and one had a concomitant sigmoid polyp. Findings in the other 6 patients were normal. No colorectal malignancy had developed in the remaining 10 patients after a mean follow-up of 76.6 months (range: 0.8 – 125.1 months).

Conclusions: Outcomes in S. bovis PD peritonitis were favorable, and an association with colorectal cancer was not found in our patients. Routine colonoscopy in these patients remains controversial and should be individualized.

745 and 0 875, respectively Additionally, significant local incr

745 and 0.875, respectively. Additionally, significant local increases in the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, Galardin interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were observed to be associated with infection. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the combination of an antimicrobial peptide with another synovial fluid biomarker improved diagnostic accuracy; the AUC value was 0.916 for LL-37 and IL-4, 0.895 for LL-37 and IL-6, 0.972 for HBD-3 and IL-4, and 0.849 for HBD-3 and IL-6. In contrast, the only antimicrobial peptides and cytokines in serum that showed a significant

systemic increase in association with infection were HBD-2, IL-4, and IL-6 (all of which had an AUC value of <0.75).

Conclusions: The present study showed promising results for the use of antimicrobial peptides and other biomarkers in synovial fluid for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection, and analysis of the levels in synovial fluid was more accurate than analysis of serum.”
“The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE or AGER) is a multiligand

member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. RAGE is expressed in several tissues, including human myometrium, chorionic villi and placenta. Advanced glycation end products are the best studied ligands of RAGE; they have pro-inflammatory actions in human gestational tissues, increasing oxidative stress and the release of cytokines and prostaglandins. We investigated the association of RAGE gene promoter

A-1210477 polymorphisms -429T>C (rs1800625) and -374T>A (rs1800624) with gestational diabetes. A sample of 750 unrelated European origin pregnant Brazilian women were classified as nondiabetic (control group, N = 600) or having gestational diabetes (N = 150) according to American Diabetes Association 2009 criteria. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. The frequencies of the rare alleles -429C (6.3 versus 9.1%) and -374A (26 versus 30%) Selleckchem Adavosertib were not significantly different between the gestational diabetes patients and healthy pregnant women. Also, the -429T>C and -374T>A polymorphisms were not associated with body mass index, lipid profile, fasting glycemia, HbA1C, or insulin requirement. We found that functional promoter polymorphisms of the RAGE gene were not associated with gestational diabetes or its complications in these Euro-Brazilian patients.”
“Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was carried out on representative individuals of wild Haliotis asinina using 64 primer combinations. Nine polymorphic AFLPs were cloned and sequenced. Sequence-specific primers were designed from six AFLP-derived fragments.

Results: All patients tolerated the procedure

Results: All patients tolerated the procedure GDC 973 well. Administration of TNG was significantly more frequent in the IV ketamine group. Pain intensity during the surgery was similar in both groups. Both groups were comparable with regard to heart rate, but patients in the SC ketamine group had a significantly lower systolic BP at the 2nd measurement and a lower

rate-pressure product at the 2nd, 4th, and 5th measurements. All patients in the SC ketamine group were cooperative during surgery and experienced uneventful recoveries; mild hallucinations were observed in 5 patients in the IV ketamine group. In the IV ketamine group, 3 patients lost the ability to cooperate during surgery. All catheters were successfully placed.

Conclusions: Dissociative conscious sedation is an acceptable alternative to general anesthesia in laparoscopic implantation of the PD catheter. Ketamine by the SC route is as effective as, but safer than, IV ketamine.”
“Association between insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported. This prompted us to evaluate the power of the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) in association with IGFBP-1 to identify IR early in obese children/adolescents. OGTT was performed in 34 obese/overweight children/adolescents. Glucose, insulin and IGFBP-1 were measured in serum samples and ISI

was calculated. Considering the presence of three or more risk factors for IR as a criterion for IR, ISI <4.6 showed 87.5% sensitivity and 94.5% specificity in diagnosing IR. IGFBP-1 was lower in the group with ISI <4.6 (p <0.01). In this selleck group, three patients had higher than expected IGFBP-1, suggesting hepatic IR, while three patients with ISI >4.6 showed very low IGFBP-1 levels. Conclusion: ISI <4.6 is a good indicator of early peripheral IR and, associated with IGFBP-1, can identify increased risk of hepatic IR. Low IGFBP-1 levels among non-IR children may indicate increased portal insulin levels.”

investigate the efficacy of the current fertility preservation consultation process in patients’ decision-making and socio-demographic and cognitive factors that may affect patients’ decision-making, a prospective pilot survey was conducted at university-based IVF centres and included women aged 18-43 years seen for fertility preservation between April 2009 selleck chemicals and December 2010. Patients’ views on consultation and decision-making about fertility preservation were measured. Among 52 women who completed the survey, more than half (52%) requested their consultation. All patients answered that consultation was a helpful resource of information, and 73% made their decision about treatment after consultation. Decisional conflict was lower in patients who felt strongly that they were given opportunities to ask questions during the consultation (P = 0.001) and higher those who reported that cost was strongly influential in the treatment decision (P < 0.

We used automated urinalysis with flow cytometry to characterize

We used automated urinalysis with flow cytometry to characterize urine samples from 135 acute KID subjects and 87 febrile control (FC) subjects without

urinary tract infection. Pyuria [defined as >= 12 (for males) or 20 (for females) cells/mu L] was present in 79.8% of KD and 54.0% of FC subjects (P < 0.0001). The median number of white blood cells (WBC) in the urine was 42 WBC/mu L in KD and 12 WBC/mu L in FC (P < 0.0001). No significant difference between the groups was seen for urine red blood cell (RBC) count, protein, or specific gravity. Comparison of voided versus catheter-collected urine samples indicated an origin of the cells from the bladder or upper urinary tract in both patient groups. Pyuria in KD subjects was not correlated with age or day of illness. Overall, the presence check details of pyuria was neither specific nor sensitive as a marker for KID, but the magnitude of pyuria was significantly higher in KID patients compared with the FC group.”

To determine whether there is an association between sleep position and the appearance of facial wrinkles and facial learn more descent.

Materials and Methods

One hundred women were questioned about their sleep position preference. An independent expert observer evaluated frontal images with digital laterality randomization to identify

the side with more wrinkles and more ptosis.


Forty-one right-sided sleepers and 23 left-sided sleepers were identified. There was statistical independence between sleep side and side with more wrinkles and between sleep side and side with more facial ptosis according to the Pearson chi-square test.


Sleep side preference was not significantly correlated with the appearance of wrinkles or facial descent.”
“Reduced coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)H(2)) BMS-777607 supplier is known as a potent antioxidant in biological systems. However, it is not yet known whether CoQ(9)H(2) could act as an antioxidant in human cells. The aim of this study is to assess whether exogenously added CoQ(9) can protect human liver cells against injuries

induced by a water-soluble radical initiator, 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and a lipid-soluble radical initiator, 2,2′-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN). CoQ(9)-enriched cells were obtained by treatment of HepG2 cells with 10 mu M CoQ(9) liposomes for 24 h. CoQ(9)-enriched cells were exposed to 10 mM AAPH and 500 mu M AMVN over 4 h and 24 h, respectively. The loss of viability after treatment with AAPH or AMVN was much less in CoQ(9)-enriched cells than in naive HepG2 cells. The decrease in glutathione and the increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance after treatment with AAPH or AMVN were also suppressed in CoQ(9)-enriched cells. The incubation of CoQ(9)-enriched cells with AAPH or AMVN led to a decrease in cellular CoQ(9)H(2) and reciprocal increase in cellular CoQ(9) resulting from its antioxidant function.

In 2012, the mean score for serology was 88 5% and 12/13 laborato

In 2012, the mean score for serology was 88.5% and 12/13 laboratories scored 100% for HNA-1a, -1b, -1c, -3a, -3b, -4a, -4bw, -5a and -5bw genotyping. These QA exercises have provided an invaluable tool to monitor and improve the standard of granulocyte immunology investigations for participating laboratories, thereby enhancing performance for both clinical investigations and donor screening programmes to reduce the incidence of TRALI.”
“Objective: In this study, the role of cytokine allelic variations in susceptibility Bafilomycin A1 concentration to acute graft rejection and hepatitis

B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections was evaluated in liver transplant recipients.

Methods: Polymorphisms of interleukin 6 (IL-6) G-174C, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) T+869C, IL-4 C-590T, and interferon

gamma (IFN-y) T+874A cytokines from 83 liver transplant recipients were evaluated by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain Adriamycin order reaction (ARMS-PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods.

Results: In liver transplant recipients who experienced acute liver rejection and HBV infection, the frequency of the IFN-y AA and TT genotypes was significantly higher than that of the AT genotype. In the patients who experienced acute liver rejection but were not infected with HCV, the frequency of the IL-6 GG genotypes was significantly greater than that of the GC and CC genotypes. The frequency of the IL-6 GG/TGF-beta IT genotype combinations was significantly higher in patients whose bodies rejected the new liver (hereafter referred to as learn more “”rejection patients”") than in patients whose bodies did not reject the new liver (hereafter referred to as “”nonrejection patients”") (39% and 10%, respectively). Also, IL-6 CC/TGF-beta CT was significantly lower in the rejection patients than in the nonrejection patients (0% and 15%, respectively).

Conclusion: The cytokine gene polymorphisms we studied are important in the prediction of acute liver rejection with or without HBV

and HCV pathophysiologic manifestations.”
“Background: While apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) is highly correlated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), its role in AD pathology and, in particular, beta-amyloid (A beta) removal from the brain, is not clearly defined. Objective: To elucidate the influence of apoE on the clearance of A beta across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Methods: A beta (1-42) was intra-cerebrally administered to transgenic mice expressing human apoE isoforms and examined in the periphery. Results: apoE3 and apoE4 mice had 5 times and 2 times, respectively, more A beta (1-42) appearing in the plasma than wild-type or apoE knockout mice, indicating an enhanced clearance of A beta from the brain to the periphery. In vitro, unbound basolateral apoE3 (i.e.

0 ng mL(-1) A history of all PSA values over the past 10 years <

0 ng mL(-1). A history of all PSA values over the past 10 years SHP099 smiles was compiled for each patient to create a database of patients fitting the following criteria: (1) minimum of five PSA measurements, (2) over at least 5 years. Exclusion criteria were: (1) PSA < 0.2 ng mL(-1) at each measurement and (2) having had more than one

PSA test per year. In all, 1 327 patients (mean age: 78.52 years) fit the inclusion criteria. The mean variation from the first to the last PSA test was 0.05 +/- 0.43, with a mean follow-up of 6.79 +/- 1.71 years. Over the same period, the mean fluctuation from the lowest to the highest PSA value was 0.04 +/- 0.55 (P = 0.925). The mean annual PSA velocity (PSAV) was calculated by dividing the mean variation from the first to the last PSA test by the number of years of observation for each patient and was set at 0.0104 +/- 0.1050. Concluding, in a

large-scale cohort of elderly individuals considered healthy and evaluated for a considerable follow-up, the average annual PSAV as well as the average Vorinostat cell line fluctuation from the lowest to the highest PSA value are insignificant.”
“Since the discovery of relatively high amounts of the carcinogenic acrylamide in heat-processed food products, many studies have been devoted to the formation of acrylamide. However, as acrylamide is an alpha,beta-unsaturated amide, subsequent reactions can provoke the desired removal of this compound. Therefore, the stability of acrylamide and its reactivity with various food-relevant nucleophiles were studied.

The results showed that acrylamide was quite stable in aqueous solutions, but much less in dry reaction conditions. Buffer type and pH had a significant influence on the decrease of free acrylamide. The presence of amino acids with a nucleophilic side chain considerably decreased the free acrylamide, due to Michael-type addition reactions. The highest reactivity was noted for cysteine, leading to the formation of the mono-addition product cysteine-S-beta-propionamide, as well as to the double addition product. Other nucleophiles, Entinostat supplier such as lysine, arginine, serine and ascorbic acid, were

less reactive, but yielded comparable condensation products. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Reported cases of “”pure”" duplication of the entire short arm of chromosome 16 (16p) are rare, with only 7 patients described in the literature. We report on a female infant with de novo 16p duplication localized to the short arm of chromosome 6, detected by chromosomal analysis and characterized by array CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization. This baby girl presented with clinical symptoms characteristic of patients with duplications of the short arm of chromosome 16: psychomotor retardation, constitutional growth delay and specific dysmorphic features, including proximally placed hypoplastic thumbs. In addition, she exhibited evidence of neonatal hemochromatosis as shown by direct hyperbilirubinemia, iron overload and elevated liver enzyme levels.

We propose that the detection

of duodenal atresia should

We propose that the detection

of duodenal atresia should prompt the physician to conduct a thorough ultrasonographic examination to rule out associated anomalies, such as alveolar capillary dysplasia, which can be detected by the presence of highly echogenic lungs.”
“A selleck chemicals total of 17 species from 43 isolates were obtained through serial dilutions of soil samples isolated from one of the man-made solar salterns located in Ban Laem district of Phetchaburi province, Thailand. Soil analysis of the sample revealed high salinity and moisture content, slight alkalinity and low amounts of nitrogen, total organic carbon and organic matter in the habitat. Morphological analysis was performed on all isolates, and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out only on the halophilic fungi isolated. Six halophilic

fungi, belonging to four species, were identified among the isolates, including five strains of Aspergillus genus [Aspergillus flavus, A. gracilis, A. penicillioides (2 strains) and A. restrictus]. One species was found to be a yeast, namely, Sterigmatomyces halophilus, which was the most frequent isolate found among the halophilic fungi. All other isolates were halotolerant fungi. Characterization of the halophilic fungal isolates showed that they were best adapted to conditions of 10-15 % NaCl (w/v), slight alkalinity (pH 7.0-7.5) and a temperature buy MLN4924 range of 30-35 A degrees C.”
“Background: Myocardial Crenigacestat perfusion imaging by positron-emission tomography (PET MPI) is regarded as a valid technique for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), but the incremental prognostic value of PET MPI among individuals with known or suspected

CAD is not firmly established. Hypothesis: Myocardial perfusion defect sizes as measured by PET MPI using automated software will provide incremental prognostic value for cardiac and all-cause mortality. Methods: This study included 3739 individuals who underwent rest-stress rubidium-82 PET MPI for the evaluation of known or suspected CAD. Rest, stress, and stress-induced myocardial perfusion defect sizes were determined objectively by automated computer software. Study participants were followed for a mean of 5.2 years for cardiac and all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were developed to evaluate the incremental prognostic value of PET MPI. Results: A strong correlation was observed between perfusion defect sizes assessed visually and by automated software (r = 0.76). After adjusting for cardiac risk factors, known CAD, noncoronary vascular disease, and use of cardioprotective medications, stress perfusion defect size was strongly associated with cardiac death (P < 0.001). Rest perfusion defects demonstrated a stronger association with cardiac death (P < 0.001) than stress-induced perfusion defects (P = 0.01), yet both were highly significant. Similar patterns held for all-cause death.