Blood vessels exhibited a hemangiopericytomatous

Blood vessels exhibited a hemangiopericytomatous EPZ004777 purchase pattern and boomerang-like features. Immunohistochemical results were as follows: vimentin, 14/14 cases positive; smooth muscle actin, 14/14 cases positive; desmin, 14/14 cases positive; CD 99, 4/14 cases positive; inhibin-alpha, 14/14 cases positive; oestrogen receptor, 0/14 cases positive; progesterone receptor, 2/14 cases positive.

The characteristic histopathological

features we observed in our study are usually adequate for the diagnosis of SSTs. Although inhibin-alpha, CD 99 and desmin staining may be a useful and reliable tool for SST diagnosis in problematic cases, an immunohistochemical panel will not discriminate from other tumours in the sex cord-stromal group.”
“To develop conjugated polymers with low bandgap, deep HOMO level, and good solubility, a new conjugated alternating copolymer PC-DODTBT based on N-9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole and 5, 6-bis(octyloxy)-4,7di(thiophen-2-yl) benzothiadiazole was synthesized by Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization reaction. The polymer reveals excellent

solubility and thermal stability with the decomposition temperature (5% weight loss) of 327 degrees C. The HOMO level of PC-DODTBT is -5.11 eV, indicating that the polymer has relatively deep HOMO level. The hole mobility of PC-DODTBT as deduced from SCLC method was found to be 2.03 x 10(-4) cm(2)/Versus Polymer solar

cells (PSCs) based on the blends of PC-DODTBT and [6,6]-phenyl-C-71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) with a weight Dorsomorphin mouse ratio of 1:2.5 were fabricated. Under AM 1.5 (AM, air mass), 100 mW/cm(-2) illumination, the devices were found to exhibit an open-circuit voltage (V-oc) of 0.73 V, short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 5.63 mA/cm(-2), and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.44%. This photovoltaic performance indicates that the copolymer is promising for polymer solar cells applications. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 99-107, 2012″
“An ab initio Bioactive Compound Library price calculation based on density functional theory is applied to study the new source of p-type conductivity in Li-N codoped ZnO. The calculated results show that the interstitial Li (Li(i)) easily binds with the substitutional Li defect at the Zn site (Li(Zn)) and the substitutional N defect at the O site (N(O)). This induces the formation of Li(i)-Li(Zn) and Li(i)-N(O) passive complex. However, only Li(i)-N(O) can introduce an impurity band above the valence band maximum of the pure ZnO and decrease the ionization energies of the relative complexes. The possible configurations of Li(i)-N(O) combining with other additional acceptors Li(Zn) and N(O) are discussed. It is found that N(O)-Li(i)-N(O) may be a possible source of p-type conductivity under Zn-rich conditions. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

Hematologic analysis revealed monocytosis and mild anemia Histol

Hematologic analysis revealed monocytosis and mild anemia. Histologic evaluation of the ventral keel lesion revealed evidence of chronic heterophilic dermatitis with multinucleated giant cells and bacterial rods and cocci. An unspeciated gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium was isolated via aerobic bacterial culture. Results of bacterial biochemical tests suggested the organism was a type of Actinomyces. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was performed; results indicated the organism was Lactobacillus jensenii.

Treatment and Outcome-Extensive surgical debridement of the branching granuloma, which

extended throughout the length of the keel, followed by long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin and clindamycin provided full resolution of clinical signs. No recrudescence of clinical signs was evident for up to 18 months after the initial evaluation.

Clinical Relevance-To the Nepicastat authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of Lactobacillus-associated dermatitis or subdermal granuloma in the scientific literature and the second report of L jensenii in avian species. Use of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was instrumental in the identification of this fastidious organism, indicating the method’s usefulness as a diagnostic

tool.”
“Transition metal compounds with two-dimensional triangular lattice, such as LiVO2, are of particular interest, because they exhibit peculiar structural and magnetic behavior involving the frustration present in these oxides. An orbital ordering transition occurs near 500 K, which leads to a suppression of magnetic moment below the phase transition temperature T-t. We synthesized this website a series of Mg-doped LiVO2 single-phase samples and reported GPCR Compound Library manufacturer their structural and magnetic properties. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurement. For Mg-doped samples Li1-xMgxVO2 (x=0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15), the structural analysis show that, with increasing x, the lattice constants change monotonously; in the a-b plane, the lattice expands; while in the c-axis direction, the lattice is compressed.

Substitution of Li with Mg ions results in the degeneration of two-dimensional characteristics and the distortion of the VO6 block, which significantly influence magnetic properties. The magnetic phase transition temperature falls with increasing x. The Mg-dopants play an important role on breaking the original moment equilibrium and suppressing the magnetic frustration. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3364058]“
“Aging results in the development of cognitive and motor deficits in humans and animals that are evident by midlife. These deficits are thought to stem from neuronal damage and dysfunction as a result of a variety of stressors, including increased oxidative stress and modifications in brain lipid composition.

Dexamethasone transiently increased the relative and absolute CD2

Dexamethasone transiently increased the relative and absolute CD25(high)CD8(+) and CD25(low)CD8(+) cell numbers. This effect was not a consequence of increased proliferation, but at least partly

resulted from the antiapoptotic effect of the drug on these cells. The obtained results indicate that induction of CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion and impairment of IFN-gamma production by these cells participate in the production of the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effect of dexamethasone in cattle. An increase in Foxp3, IL-10 and TGF-beta production by CD8(+) lymphocytes is not involved in the production of these effects because the drug did not affect the percentage of TGF-beta(+)CD8(+) cells, while paradoxically reducing the percentage of cells with the suppressive phenotype, i.e. IL-10(+)CD25(low)CD8(+) and Foxp3(+)CD25(low)CD8(+) cells. Meloxicam did not substantially

affect P5091 order CD8(+) lymphocytes as to their percentage, absolute number, apoptosis, proliferation, Foxp3 expression and IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TGF-beta production. Thus, in the context of the parameters being estimated, meloxicam seems a relatively safe anti-inflammatory drug to be used in infectious diseases in cattle. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Controlling welding Cl-amidine residual stress and distortion has still been a challenging problem due to the complexity of welding process. In this paper, a new technique with inductive electromagnetic forces has been reported for controlling welding residual stresses and distortion in welded thin

plate. In order to get better understanding the associated mechanism, a hybrid three-dimensional finite element analysis, including electromagnetic force induction, welding, and electromagnetic force impact processes, selleck kinase inhibitor has been performed to investigate the dynamic evolution of stress and strain in the welded plate under electromagnetic force impact. It is found that transient electromagnetic impact causes the mechanical response with the obvious strain rate sensitivity, and complex variation in stress and strain states in the welded plate occurs due to combination action of electromagnetic force and welding residual stress. As a result, the incompatible degree of strain field, arising from welding thermal cycle, is reduced. The residual stresses also finally fall, although the flow stress rises during electromagnetic impact. The measurement results of microhardness also indicate that the plastic strain state in local weld region is indeed changed under electromagnetic impact. Finally, continuous electromagnetic impacts experiments are conducted, and results show that this approach is very successful for reducing welding residual stresses and distortion in welded thin plates, without any impairment of appearance and performance. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.

A systematic review of the literature was undertaken Selected tr

A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Selected trials were analysed to generate

a summative outcome.

Seven trials on the efficacy of SCRT versus LCRT as a neoadjuvant modality for LRC encompassing 1,675 patients were retrieved but only 2 randomized trials on 396 patients qualified for this review. In both the fixed and random effects models, LCRT and SCRT were associated with equal overall survival, tumour recurrence, perioperative complications, sphincter preservation rate and toxicity.

SCRT and LCRT may be as effective as traditional LCRT in terms of overall survival, recurrence, perioperative complications, sphincter preservation and toxicity. Traditional neoadjuvant chemoradiation may continue to be used.”
“A basic understanding find more of the transport mechanisms of nanostructures in a polymer brush-modified nanochannel as well as the brush-nanostructure interactions at molecular level is

important to design and fabricate emerging smart nano/microfluidic channels. In this work, we report coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the translocation of nanoparticles through a cylindrical nanochannel coated with the polymer brush. The effects of the interparticle interaction and grafting density on the distribution GSK1838705A price and electrokinetic transport of nanoparticles are addressed in detail. Analysis of the distribution and velocity profiles of nanoparticles from the simulations indicate that the location of nanoparticles along the radial direction and their migration velocity are very sensitive to the change of interparticle interaction. We find complicated transport dynamics of nanoparticles under the influence of various grafting densities. The nanoparticles show markedly different translocation behavior upon increasing the grafting density, which depends on the counterion distribution, free room within the brush, nanoparticle-polymer friction, JQ1 datasheet and brush configuration. Our results may serve as a useful starting point for the transport of nanostructures

in polymer-modified channels and help to guide the design of novel smart nanofluidic channels for controlling the migration behavior of nanostructures. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org.elibrary.einstein.yu.edu/10.1063/1.4732799]“
“The use of the bedside to teach the art of clinical medicine is controversial. Rising student numbers can limit patient availability. Studies examining inpatient attitudes to bedside teaching are few.

We examined inpatients’ attitudes to bedside teaching of undergraduate medical students.

The study was carried out in a 439-bed teaching hospital. A questionnaire, numerically scored (0-10), was prospectively administered to 102 consecutive patients involved in bedside teaching of undergraduate medical students.

The results were available from 92 patients. Patients enjoyed the teaching process (mean score 9.13 +/- A 1.

According to the authors’ literature search, the patient is the f

According to the authors’ literature search, the patient is the first reported case of pediatric sacral primary mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma cases in pediatric age group published in English literature was reviewed.”
“Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers based on PbSe/PbSrSe multi-quantum-well structures on Si-substrates are realized. A modular design allows growing the active region

and the bottom Bragg mirror on two different Si-substrates, thus facilitating comparison between different structures. Lasing is observed ML323 research buy from 3.3 to 5.1 mu m wavelength and up to 52 degrees C heat sink temperature with 1.55 mu m optical pumping. Simulations show that threshold powers are limited by Shockley-Read recombination with lifetimes as short as 0.1 ns. At higher temperatures, an additional threshold power increase occurs probably due to limited carrier diffusion length and carrier leakage, caused by an unfavorable band alignment. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3579450]“
“The

acquired form of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) presents either as an acute self-limited disease, predominantly seen in children, or as a chronic illness more frequently seen in adults with rare spontaneous remissions. A 14-year-old boy presented with pallor, without hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, lymphadenopathy, petechiae, or any other apparent abnormalities. Isolated anemia in the presence of normal white cell and platelet counts with a marrow of normal cellularity and absence of erythroblasts MK-2206 but normal myeloid cells and megakaryocytes revealed the diagnosis www.selleckchem.com/products/nocodazole.html of PRCA. All possible investigations excluded secondary causes of PRCA. The patient required packed red cell transfusions every 2 to 3 weeks. He failed therapy with intravenous

immunoglobulin, corticosteroids, cyclosporine A plus corticosteroids, antithymocyte globulin, anti-CD 20 (rituximab), and erythropoietin (EPO). He showed a severe, resistant, and transfusion-dependent PRCA. Spontaneous remission with normal hemoglobin and reticulocyte levels was dramatic 6.5 years after the diagnosis of PRCA and 3.6 years after his last treatment.”
“Aim: Carboplatin plus paclitaxel is a more costly chemotherapy regimen than cisplatin plus etoposide; however there have been reports of higher efficacy and less toxicity of this regimen. Thus, this study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these two chemotherapy regimens in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Using the perspective of Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand, direct medical costs, including chemotherapy, drugs, medical service charges, costs of adverse events, concomitant medication and survival time were directly gathered from 65 patients enrolled from August 2005 to November 2008. A one-way sensitivity analysis was performed.

Although this study unable to determine whether developmental res

Although this study unable to determine whether developmental rescue occurred exclusively through introduction of

unaffected mitochondria into ethidium bromide-damaged oocytes, e. g. ethidium bromide may also affect other ooplasm components, these results clearly demonstrate that ooplasm transfer can completely rescue developmentally compromised oocytes, supporting the potential use of ooplasm transfer in therapeutic applications. (C) 2010, Reproductive Selleck BMS-754807 Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose The Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) is a short, multidimensional outcome scale validated for the use by patients with spinal disorders. It is a recommended instrument in the Spine Society of Europe Spine Tango Registry. The purpose of this study was to produce a cross-culturally adapted and validated Polish COMI.

Methods The cross-cultural selleck adaptation was carried out using the established guidelines.

One-hundred and sixty-nine patients with chronic low back pain were enrolled, 89 took part in the reproducibility part of the study. Data quality, construct validity and reproducibility were assessed.

Results The quality of data was very good with very few missing answers and modest floor effect. Reliability expressed as intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.90 (95 % CI 0.85-0.93) for the overall COMI score and for most of the individual core items. The minimum detectable change (MDC95%) was 1.79.

Conclusions The Polish version of COMI showed a favorable reproducibility similar to that of previously tested language versions. The COMI scores correlated sufficiently with existing measures. This version of the COMI is a valuable instrument for the use by Polish-speaking patients with spinal disorders.”
“During vitrification, the glass-like solidification is the phase-transition process from liquid to solid. Phase transition is one of the major factors suspected to affect the physiology of the oocyte, such as the structure

of the meiotic spindle. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the systematic and morphological alterations of the metaphase-II spindle and chromosome arrangement during complete EGFR inhibitors cancer course of a vitrification and warming process. B6D2F1 (C57BL/6 X DBA/2) mouse oocytes were cryopreserved by minimum volume cooling (MVC) method of vitrification in a solution with 15% ethylene glycol, 15% dimethylsulphoxide and 0.5 mol/l sucrose. To examine the spindle, oocytes were fixed before, during and after vitrification and were analysed by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. It was shown that spindles in all oocytes could be maintained through the vitrification and warming process, even though they were exposed to extreme temperature and two rounds of phase transition.

Here we report our experience of clinical implementation of daily

Here we report our experience of clinical implementation of daily online IGRT and IMRT using helical tomotherapy.

Materials and methods: Methods were needed to select patients who would probably benefit. Machine-specific

commissioning, a quality assurance programme and patient-specific delivery quality assurance were also needed. The planning target volume dose was prescribed as the median dose, with the added criterion that the 95% isodose should cover 99% of the target volume. Although back-up plans, for delivery on conventional linear accelerators, were initially prepared, this practice was abandoned because they were used very rarely.

Results: In the first 12 months, 114 patients were accepted for treatment, and 3343 fractions

GSK923295 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor delivered. New starts averaged 2.6 per week, with an average of 17.5 fractions treated per day, and the total number capped at 22. This has subsequently been raised to 24. Of the first 100 patients, 96 were treated with radical intent. Five were considered to have been untreatable on our standard equipment. IGRT is radiographer led and all patients were imaged daily, with positional correction made before treatment, using an action level of 1 mm. A formal training programme was developed and implemented before P5091 research buy installation. The in-room time fell significantly during the year, reflecting increasing experience and a software upgrade. More recently, after a couch upgrade in April 2009, the mean in-room time fell to 18.6 min.

Conclusions: Successful implementation of tomotherapy was the result of careful planning and effective teamwork. Treatment, including daily image guidance, positional correction

and intensity-modulated delivery, is fast and efficient, and can be integrated into routine service. This should encourage the adoption of these technologies. (C) 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The management of herpes zoster Vadimezan price (HZ) usually involves a multidisciplinary approach aiming to reduce complications and morbidity. Patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) are referred to ophthalmologists for prevention or treatment of its potential complications. Without prompt detection and treatment, HZO can lead to substantial visual disability. In our practice, we usually evaluate patients with HZO for corneal complications such as epithelial, stromal, and disciform keratitis; anterior uveitis; necrotizing retinitis; and cranial nerve palsies in relation to the eye. These are acute and usually sight-threatening. We recommend oral acyclovir in conjunction with topical 3% acyclovir ointment, lubricants, and steroids for conjunctival, corneal, and uveal inflammation associated with HZO.

Overall catheter survival at 12 and 24 months was 95% and 83% in

Overall catheter survival at 12 and 24 months was 95% and 83% in TIMG and 93% and 79% in SNCG respectively (p = 0.72).

Conclusion: By using the conventional Tenckhoff catheter with a downward exit created using the triple incision method, high catheter survival rates with infective and mechanical complication rates similar to those of the swan neck catheter can be achieved. The triple incision method has the additional advantages of lower cost and the catheter can be manipulated by guidewire technique if tip migration occurs.”
“Background: At present there are various more

or less invasive surgical and laparoscopic ways to place a catheter suitable for peritoneal dialysis (PD); however, once the catheter is in place, there is no possibility to inspect the peritoneal cavity without de novo laparotomy or laparoscopy.

Patients and Methods: To establish a minimally invasive technique and allowing for maximal options, we used a PD catheter with an extra selleck screening library large inside selleck inhibitor diameter of 3.5 mm. Because of the enlarged inner diameter of 3.5 mm (compared to 2.6 mm in standard Tenckhoff catheters), this device can be passed

by a very thin video-endoscope with an external diameter of 2.8 mm. Using a stepwise approach, we applied this device in placing PD catheters in 2 patients. The procedure could be done without complications. Both patients were doing well 4 and 6 months later, respectively, without any PD-related complications. Intraperitoneal view by the endoscope was limited; an attempt to obtain a peritoneal biopsy failed.

Conclusions: If the drawbacks of this method can be overcome it will have a wide spectrum of applications (i.e., inspection of the peritoneal cavity and obtaining peritoneal biopsies at any time during PD treatment). In this way it can be used scientifically and clinically when a problem of flow

or ultrafiltration occurs or when encapsulating sclerosing peritonitis is suspected.”
“Extrarenal manifestation and complications of inflammatory bowel disease may be detected in a significant number of patients. It is known that the genitourinary tract may be affected but data from childhood population are scarce. We present an unusual bilateral obstruction of ureters, inflammation of bladder wall and vesicoureteral reflux in a boy with ulcerative colitis. Obstructions led to recurrent acute kidney injury with need of surgical intervention to prevent kidney function deterioration. AZD1390 cost (C) 2011 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is common among patients on dialysis and is worse among patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) than among patients on hemodialysis. In this study we tested the hypothesis that administration of telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, might improve insulin sensitivity in patients on PD.

Method: This was a crossover study of 30 nondiabetic patients with end-stage renal disease being treated with PD.

X-ray photoelectron microscope showed that MPC polymers were loca

X-ray photoelectron microscope showed that MPC polymers were located at the surface of the microcapsules. The amounts of adsorbed bovine serum albumin and Fg on the microcapsules were significantly decreased than that on the conventional PLA particles (74% and 60%, respectively), well indicating the anti-adhesive property of the microcapsules. Paclitaxel was chosen as a prototype anticancer drug for the encapsulation and release studies, the results showed that the drug encapsulation efficiency

was 89.3 +/- 1.2% and the microcapsules exhibited controlled release behaviour.”
“Objective: The objective of this study was to examine receptive and expressive language development in children AZD0530 cell line who received INCB028050 in vivo simultaneous bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) between 5 and 18 months of age and to compare the results with language development in chronologically age-matched children with normal hearing.

Methods: The study used a prospective, longitudinal matched-group design. Data were collected in a clinical setting at postoperative cochlear implant check-ups after 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of implant use. The sample included 42 children: 21 cochlear implant users and 21 with normal hearing, matched pairwise according to gender and chronological age. Communication assessments

included the LittlEARS questionnaire, LY3039478 cell line the Mullen Scale of Early Learning, and the Minnesota Child Development Inventory.

Results: The cochlear

implant users’ hearing function according to LittlEARS was comparable to that of normal-hearing children within 9 months post-implantation. The mean scores after 9 and 12 months were 31 and 33, respectively in the prelingually deaf versus 31 and 34 in the normal-hearing children. The children’s receptive and expressive language scores showed that after 12-48 months with cochlear implants, 81% had receptive language skills within the normative range and 57% had expressive language skills within the normative range. The number of children who scored within the normal range increased with increasing Cl experience.

Conclusions: The present study showed that prelingually deaf children’s ability to develop complex expressive and receptive spoken language after early bilateral implantation appears promising.

The majority of the children developed language skills at a faster pace than their hearing ages would suggest and over time achieved expressive and receptive language skills within the normative range. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The alignment and normalization of individual brain structures is a prerequisite for group-level analyses of structural and functional neuroimaging data.

1063/1 3544481]”
“Stimulation of insulin-like

1063/1.3544481]”
“Stimulation of insulin-like selleck compound growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor by IGF-1 and insulin strongly induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that genetic variations of the IGF-1 receptor may be linked to the diversity of left ventricular (LV) structure in hypertensive patients. Genotypes

in 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IGF-1 receptor gene identified by direct sequencing were determined in 795 Japanese patients with essential hypertension. In echocardiographic examinations, LV mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were measured. Among 12 SNPs, promoter -328C>T and intron-13 275124A>C polymorphisms were significantly associated with LV hypertrophy (LVM >= 125 g m(-2)) and concentric change (RWT >= 0.44), respectively. In allele frequencies, the C allele of -328C>T was related to LV hypertrophy, and the A allele of 275124A>C was related to LV concentric change. In fact, LVMI and prevalence of LV hypertrophy increased in CC genotype of -328C>T. RWT and prevalence of LV concentric change increased in AA genotype of 275124A>C. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the RepSox presence of CC genotype of -328C>T or AA genotype of 275124A>C was an independent determinant for LV hypertrophy or concentric change, respectively. Furthermore,

the combination of CC of -328C>T and AA of 275124A>C genotypes was significantly associated with abnormal LV geometry, especially concentric hypertrophy. Our findings show that

two SNPs of the IGF-1 receptor gene are related to LV hypertrophy in patients with essential hypertension, suggesting that the genetic variation of the IGF-1 receptor may be involved in the diversity of LV structure in hypertensives. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Temsirolimus.html Journal of Human Hypertension (2010) 24, 320-326; doi:10.1038/jhh.2009.73; published online 17 September 2009″
“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with atypical symptoms poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, frequently resulting in delayed diagnosis. The patient reported here presented with unexplained weight loss and was investigated for 8 months, with an extensive work-up, including several imaging studies, especially to rule out neoplastic processes, before a diagnosis of ALS could be made, largely on the basis of upper and lower motor weakness. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011; 23:362-364)”
“Studies of oxide interfaces, and how they affect physical properties, have recently gained large attention. For ferroelectric materials, the evolution of the order parameter close to an interface is important to understand regarding the stability of the ferroelectric phase, and how to optimize devices taking advantage of the polarization at the interface.