The use of BCAA in energy drinks is becoming more popular Althou

The use of BCAA in energy drinks is becoming more popular. Although BCAAs have been demonstrated to have an important role in protein synthesis [23], and enhance recovery from high-intensity exercise [24], several studies have suggested that BCAA buy CHIR-99021 may also improve cognition, focus and psychomotor function [25–28]. Egberts and colleagues [27] reported that BCAA supplementation can improve line tracing, steadiness, attention and auditory reaction time. Most studies demonstrating enhanced cognitive function from BCAA

supplementation have been performed on subjects suffering from brain injury [25, 26]. The mechanism underlying improved cognition has been suggested to be related to changes in amino acid concentrations within the brain [29]. During OICR-9429 mouse prolonged Cobimetinib research buy physical activity the use of BCAA may counteract or delay fatigue by decreasing the concentration of tryptophan and the synthesis of serotonin [28, 30]. Serotonin has been implicated as a potential cause of central and mental fatigue during prolonged

endurance activity [30], and decreases in this neurotransmitter may have an important role in minimizing or delaying performance decrements during fatiguing exercise. The results of this study suggest a contributory role of the BCAA towards delay in fatigue and enhanced focus. In addition, the combination of both arginine and BCAA has recently been shown to attenuate muscle proteolysis during endurance exercise [31]. The role that creatine may have had on the observed results is not clear. The ergogenic benefits of creatine supplementation have been

well-documented [32]. These benefits have been expressed primarily during high intensity exercise and performance in strength/power events following approximately one week of supplementation. Creatine is generally Fossariinae not recognized as a potential ergogenic aid for endurance exercise. However, recent studies have focused on the role that phosphocreatine and the creatine kinase system play in mediating brain and neural function [33, 34]. It is thought that 20% of the body’s energy consumption may occur in the brain [33], thus an efficient ATP/PC replenishment system would be critical for normal brain function. Creatine is thought to provide important neuroprotection for the brain through enhancing energy metabolism in brain tissue, promoting antioxidant activities, improving cerebral vasculation (improved brain circulation) and acting as a brain cell osmolyte that can protect the brain against hyper-osmotic shock [35]. Creatine’s neuroprotective properties also include stabilization of mitochondrial membranes, stimulation of glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles and balance of intracellular calcium homeostasis [36].

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