Vesicles were obtained from the cell-free supernatant by one of t

Vesicles were obtained from the cell-free supernatant by one of two methods. In the first method, the vesicles were pelleted (39,000 × g, 1 h), resuspended in 50 mM HEPES, pH 6.8 (HEPES), and adjusted to 45% Optiprep (Greiner) in 10 mM HEPES/0.85% NaCl, pH 7.4 (HEPES-NaCl) (weight/weight). In the second method, the vesicles were precipitated with 71–75% ammonium sulfate (4°C, for at least 3 h), pelleted

(10,000 × g, 20 min), dialyzed overnight with HEPES, concentrated (50 kDa MWCO Centriplus, Millipore), and adjusted to 45% Optiprep/HEPES-NaCl. Optiprep gradients were layered over the 2 ml crude vesicle samples as follows: For PAO1: 2 ml 40%, 2 ml 35%, 3 ml 30%, 2 ml 25%, 1 ml 20%; for Soil: 2 ml 40%, 2 ml 35%, 2 ml 30%, 2 ml 25%, 2 ml 20%; for CF isolates: 2 ml 40%, 2 ml 35%, 4 ml 30%, 2 ml 20% Optiprep/HEPES-NaCl Cediranib by weight. Gradients were centrifuged (100,000 × g, 16 h) and 1 ml fractions removed from the top. A portion

of each fraction was visualized by 15% SDS-PAGE. Pure vesicles were recovered from pooled peak fractions by dialyzing overnight against HEPES and pelleting (150,000 × g, 1 h). Vesicles were checked for sterility by culturing 5–50 μL on LB agar overnight at 37°C. Contaminated vesicles were filtered through 0.45 μm Microcon spin filters (Millipore) and recultured on LB plates. Fluorescent labeling of vesicles Purified vesicles were fluorescently labeled by incubating with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) reagent (Sigma)(1 μg FITC/μg vesicle protein in 100 mM NaCl/50 mM Na2CO3, pH 9.2), for 2 h at 25°C with mixing, or with AlexaFluor-488 succinimidyl ester (AF488, Invitrogen, in 0.1 Isotretinoin M Na2CO3, pH 9) according to manufacturer’s instructions, for 1 h at 25°C with mixing. Free FITC and AF488 were removed from labeled vesicles by washing three times in HEPES (150,000 × g, 30 min). Labeled vesicles were checked for sterility and filtered through 0.45 μm PVDF spin filters when necessary. Vesicle association assays FITC-labeled vesicles (2.5 μg per well) were incubated

with confluent monolayers (approx. 5 × 104 cells per well) of A549 human lung epithelia or HBE cells in serum-free media in 96-well plates (Costar) for 15 min to 24 h at 37°C or 4°C. All incubation conditions were done in triplicate. Cells were washed twice with PBS and then solubilized in 100 μ1 1% Triton X-100 in PBS. AZD0156 concentration fluorescence was quantitated using a FLUOstar Galaxy or FLUOstar Optima fluorometer (BMG Labtechnologies). A standard curve to correlate fluorescence measured in test wells to ng of vesicles was generated by adding purified FITC-labeled vesicles (0.5 ng–250 ng) from each strain to cells and immediately solubilizing the cells. Statistics were calculated using single-factor ANOVA. Confocal microscopy All fluorescence microscopy reagents were purchased from Molecular Probes/Invitrogen unless otherwise stated.

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