Also, human and animal samples (livestock, wild animals and ticks

Also, human and animal samples (livestock, wild animals and ticks) sent to the National Reference Laboratory at the Instituto de Salud Carlos III and to the clinical and veterinarian collaborating laboratories for diagnosis of Q fever were included in the study, including defibrinated blood, plasma, biopsy material, ruminant placentas, mostly from abortions with the exception of 3 cattle placentas from normal parturitions (Additional file 1: Table S1), and other tissues from domestic and wild animals, and questing ticks, that were collected from different

areas in Central Spain: 4 areas find more in Madrid (Cercedilla, Aranjuez, Perales and Valdeolmos) and 1 in Toledo (Oropesa). In all the areas the presence of livestock was documented (cattle in all areas and sheep and swine only in Oropesa). There were remarkable high densities of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in all the areas except Cercedilla. The study protocol was approved by the Bioethics and Animal Welfare Committee of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain (ref. CBBA/4 2006), where the study was conducted, respecting individual privacy KPT-8602 cost according to relevant

data protection legislation and animal welfare. Also, human clinical samples used in the study were made available to Silmitasertib us in an anonymized manner. Culture Standard shell-vial methodology was used as previously described [20] to grow C. burnetii in Vero

E6 cells (European Collection of Cell Cultures; provided by Sigma-Aldrich Química S.A., Tres Cantos, Madrid, Spain). All the propagative methods and those related to the manipulation of domestic ruminant placentas were performed under Biosafety level 3 (BSL3) conditions. Molecular detection of C. burnetii DNA was extracted from samples and isolates with the Qiagen Tissue kit (IZASA S.A. Barcelona, Spain). For arthropods, specimens were first oxyclozanide crushed in 1.5 ml eppendorf tubes with the help of a pestle (Sigma-Aldrich Química S.A., Barcelona, Spain), as described [21], and extracted as before. DNA was quantified in a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies Inc. Wilmington, Delaware USA), and about 200 ng were used for each PCR. Previous to the genotyping, a screening assay (IS1111-based PCR coupled with hybridization with a specific probe by reverse line blotting -RLB) was used for the detection of C. burnetii[22–24]. C. burnetii genotyping An analysis based on a previous report [15] was performed to identify which genes/ORFs defined the ascription of each isolate to a specific GG, and seven of them were selected (CBU0007, CBU0071, CBU0168, CBU0598, CBU0881, CBU1805 and CBU2026), whose combination of presence/absence seems to determine the GG (Table 1). Also, the detection of adaA (CBU0952) [19] was included in the method.

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