For these reasons some chemical strategies are focused in back to

For these reasons some chemical strategies are focused in back to the nature approaches or, in other words, in improving the properties of natural polymers by chemical modifications.

We report that by using a simple chemical modification technique we can obtain new biomaterials, specifically suitable for biomedical applications. Concretely, we describe the chemical modification of gelatin and the suitable characteristics of the modified protein to SNX-5422 develop new nanomedicines. This protein was selected because of its enormous potential in biomedicine, which is currently limited due to

the difficulty of its use without toxic chemical crosslinkers. The modification of the protein was based on the transformation of the carboxylic group into amido groups after their reaction with polyamines,

leading to a positively charged biopolymer. To cationize the gelatin two polyamines where used: ethylenediamine and spermine, the latter being one of the endogenous polyamines which has a very positive influence over cells. This modification was monitored by physico-chemical techniques such as NMR, spectrophotometry and potentiometry.

With the most promising modified gelatins we were able to develop nanoparticles using the ionotropic gelation technique. In order to determine the ability of these new nanosystems to associate bioactive molecules we selected a model plasmid DNA. The developed nanosystems were characterized corroborating their ability to associate the genetic material. In conclusion, we were able to obtain a semi-synthetic biomaterial with tunable physico-chemical properties, which can be used to click here develop new nanosystems

selleckchem with the ability to associate genetic material. We therefore propose that the gelatin, with its chemical modification, provide a unique biomaterial for the development of new nanomedicines.”
“The temperature-dependent transformation of pi-pi-stabilized stacked malvidin-catechin structures towards polymeric-type structures was studied by photoluminescence (PL) and anisotropy decay studies. The results show an immediate decrease of the anisotropy decay after elevating the temperature from 293 K to 303 K or 313 K, while only a very slow increase in the anisotropy decay could be observed when the samples were kept at these elevated temperatures for a longer time such as a few days. The slow polymerization of the malvidin-polyphenol system could be identified as the main process responsible for the change in optical properties by the comparison of the time-dependence of the anisotropy decay with the change observed in the PL intensity. Measurements were also conducted in red wines, where we observed similar results. This suggests a possibly broader relevance of our results for all systems, where anthocyanins and polyphenols are present in considerable concentrations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

We show how equations can be streamlined for special applications

We show how equations can be streamlined for special applications: when the value of all four inferences is considered equal, when the identification of TNs carries no value, and when a study carries no value unless at least one TP is discovered.

Conclusion: The proposed optimization equations can be used to guide the selection of the optimal type I and type II errors of future studies in which sample size is constrained. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“The aim this work was develop gastro-resistant pellets of didanosine as well as study the impact on

the pellets properties, regarding the way as the binder was added GPCR Compound Library mouse and drying process used. The pellets formation was accompanied by analysis of morphological parameters and didanosine dissolution. In the most cases, pellets showed diameter around 1.0 mm and shape parameters acceptable. The variations of the process did not interfere significantly in pellets size. In turn, drying in fluid bed favored the dissolution of didanosine, in contrast to binder addition on powder form that impaired. In another hand, this last resulted in the best aspect factor (about 1.1). Gastro-resistant pellets showed adequate dissolution,

compatible with this type of dosage form. Selleckchem CYT387 The variables of process studied enabled obtain pellets with characteristics of shape and dissolution just slightly different, indicating flexibility SNX-5422 concentration of the formulation for production of gastro-resistant pellets of didanosine.”
“Background: The Indigenous population of Australia was estimated as 2.5% and under-reported. The aim of this study is to improve statistical ascertainment of Aboriginal women giving birth in New South Wales.

Methods: This study was based on linked birth data from the Midwives Data Collection (MDC) and the Registry of Births Deaths and Marriages (RBDM) of New South Wales (NSW). Data linkage was performed by the Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL)

for births in NSW for the period January 2001 to December 2005. The accuracy of maternal Aboriginal status in the MDC and RBDM was assessed by consistency, sensitivity and specificity. A new statistical variable, ASV, or Aboriginal Statistical Variable, was constructed based on Indigenous identification in both datasets. The ASV was assessed by comparing numbers and percentages of births to Aboriginal mothers with the estimates by capture-recapture analysis.

Results: Maternal Aboriginal status was under-ascertained in both the MDC and RBDM. The ASV significantly increased ascertainment of Aboriginal women giving birth and decreased the number of missing cases. The proportion of births to Aboriginal mothers in the non-registered birth group was significantly higher than in the registered group.

Conclusions: Linking birth data collections is a feasible method to improve the statistical ascertainment of Aboriginal women giving birth in NSW.

The authors describe a 51-year-old Caucasian woman referred to ou

The authors describe a 51-year-old Caucasian woman referred to our department with a 3-day history of pseudovesicular reddish papules on DMXAA purchase her neck, upper trunk and limbs. Two days prior to the eruption, aceclofenac 100 mg every 8 h was initiated for lower back pain. She also complained of high fever (39 degrees C), arthralgias and general malaise. Laboratory evaluation showed an elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation

rate and C reactive protein. A biopsy specimen of skin lesions showed throughout the upper reticular dermis a dense infiltrate of mature neutrophils. Aceclofenac was discontinued and oral prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg) was started. Fever resolved within 48 h, whereas cutaneous lesions cleared within the first week. No relapse was noted after a 6-month follow-up period.

Drug-induced SS by aceclofenac diagnosis was sustained by the presence of all the five diagnostic criteria for drug-induced SS presented by Walker and Cohen in 1996. Several hundred cases of SS have been reported in the literature.

However, drug-induced SS represent overall less than 5% of all cases, mostly as isolated clinical cases. Reports of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced SS include diclofenac, celecoxib and rofecoxib. Our patient represents the first case of aceclofenac-induced SS and illustrates the need to enquire about recent drugs in a patient with suspicion of SS.”
“The provision of find protocol effective contraception

is fundamental A-1331852 ic50 to the practice of women’s health care. The most effective methods of reversible contraception are the so-called long-acting reversible contraceptives, intrauterine devices and implants. These methods have multiple advantages over other reversible methods. Most importantly, once in place, they do not require maintenance and their duration of action is long, ranging from 3 to 10 years. Despite the advantages of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, they are infrequently used in the United States. Short-acting methods, specifically oral contraceptives and condoms, are by far the most commonly used reversible methods. A shift from the use of short-acting methods to long-acting reversible contraceptive methods could help reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States. In this review of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, we discuss the intrauterine devices and the contraceptive implant available in the United States, and we describe candidates for each method, noncontraceptive benefits, and management of complications. (Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:705-19) DOI:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31820ce2f0″
“Aim: To evaluate the gonadal hormones in patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest following prospectively good (cerebral-performance category [CPC] 1-2) and poor (CPC 3-5) neurologic outcomes.

RESULTS: Blood test measurements at baseline, 6 h after and 24 h

RESULTS: Blood test measurements at baseline, 6 h after and 24 h after

the exercise sessions did not show any increase in total CK, CK-MB or

troponin. The value of all measurements remained well below the lower

limits associated with myocardial


CONCLUSION: A 20 min period of exercise above the ischemic threshold

did not result in myocardial necrosis.”
“Oligo-2-[(4-bromophenylimino)methyl]phenol (OBPIMP) was synthesized Compound C cost from the oxidative poly-condensation reaction of 2-[(4-bromophenylimino)methyl] phenol (BPIMP) with air and NaOCl oxidants in an aqueous alkaline medium between 50 and 90 degrees C. The yield of OBPIMP was found to be 67 and 88% for air and NaOCl oxidants, respectively. check details Their structures were confirmed by elemental and spectral such as IR, ultra violet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR analyses. The characterization was made by TG-DTA, size exclusion chromatography, and solubility tests. The resulting complexes were characterized by electronic and IR spectral measurements, elemental analysis, AAS, and thermal studies. According to TG analyses, the weight losses of OBPIMP, and oligomer-metal complexes with Co(+2), Ni(+2), and Cu(+2) ions

were found to be 93.04%, 59.80%, 74.23%, and 59.30%, respectively, at 1000 degrees C. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of these compounds investigated by Coats-Redfern, MacCallum-Tanner, and van Krevelen methods. The values of the apparent activation energies of thermal decomposition

(E(a)), the reaction order (n), preexponential factor (A), the entropy change (Delta S*), enthalpy change (Delta H*), and free energy change (Delta G*) obtained by earlier-mentioned methods were BIIB057 in vivo all good in agreement with each other. It was found that the thermal stabilities of the complexes follow the order Cu(II) > Co(II) > Ni(II). (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113: 1994-2007, 2009″
“Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe nurses’ conceptions of dialogues about sexuality with cancer patients.

Methods: The study was carried out using phenomenographic method. Ten nurses from different care contexts where nurses meet cancer patients in various phases of trajectory of care were interviewed.

Results: The analysis revealed one main category ‘We should talk about sexuality-but we usually don’t’ and three descriptive categories consisting of nurses’ qualitatively different conceptions of talks about sexuality: (1) nurses’ attitudes, knowledge and skills are impacting, (2) patients’ sexual problems are the basis for dialogues and (3) the ward environment is impacting. The main category was hierarchically ranged and could be further understood by the descriptive categories.

Conclusion: The study showed that cancer patients’ need of talks about and support regarding sexuality were conceived as being low during the whole trajectory of care.

E-CPB is a meaningful treatment option, which should be considere

E-CPB is a meaningful treatment option, which should be considered more often and earlier. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A new sesquiterpenoid (1), illudin T, was isolated from the culture of basidiomycete Agrocybe salicacola. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral data.”
“Objective To determine if feline lacrimal glands, glands of the third eyelid, corneas, and corneal sequestra contain porphyrins, which could be responsible for the brown/amber discoloration of corneal sequestra and tears in affected cats.

Procedures Samples of grossly normal cornea, lacrimal gland,

gland of the third eyelid, and sequestra obtained via keratectomy were collected. Porphyrin selleck chemical concentrations of the homogenate

were determined by spectrofluorometry with protoporphyrin IX and coproporphyrin III dihydrochloride used as standards. A hamster harderian gland was used as a positive control.

Results Normal tissues were harvested from one eye each of 14 nonclient owned, adult, mixed-breed, short-hair cats euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Eighteen sequestra were acquired from AG-120 price cats undergoing unilateral lamellar keratectomies. Breeds of the affected cats included eight Himalayan, five domestic shorthair, and one each of four other breeds. Only the positive control and standards contained levels of porphyrins above background. All feline samples examined were histologically normal with no evidence of porphyrins.

Conclusions Porphyrins are absent in normal feline lacrimal glands, corneas, and corneal sequestra. Porphyrins do not appear to be the cause of the brown/amber color of feline corneal sequestra.”
“A 63-year

old male with prior bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement and coronary artery bypass graft surgery presented with dyspnea. C-reactive protein and white AZD4547 blood cells were elevated and serial blood cultures were negative. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a paravalvular leak and a thickened anterior leaflet of unclear either infective or degenerative origin. For differential diagnosis, cardiac 128-dual source computed tomography (CT) was performed. The CT image showed a thickened anterior leaflet and further revealed that the paravalvular leak was draining into a large wall thickened pseudoaneurysm with dense tissue adjacent suggestive for an abscess. Therefore, (18)fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) was appended and fused with the CT images. There was no tracer-uptake surrounding the leak excluding an abscess. However, an increased (18)FDG-tracer uptake at the thickened anterior leaflet indicated active inflammation. During the subsequent cardiac surgery, vegetations were identified on the anterior cusp of the bioprosthetic valve. Intraoperative biopsy was taken and the cell culture was positive for Staphylococcus aureus.

05) When the population was stratified by gender, only the MBP 5

05). When the population was stratified by gender, only the MBP 5′-side TGGA n allele frequency was significantly different, and the frequency of allele L in the DEACMP group was significantly higher than that of the acute CO poisoning group in males (chi(2) = 4.089, P = 0.043, odds ratio = 2.103, 95% confidence interval = 1.014-4.363). The results

Omipalisib concentration showed that there was association between MBP 5′-side TGGA n gene polymorphism and DEACMP, and that allele L could increase the risk of occurrence in male patients with DEACMP. DEACMP may be the result of interaction of environmental and genetic factors.”
“Serotonergic transmission impairment and abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein have been implicated in the physiopathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar learn more dementia (FTLD). Associations between a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene,

and susceptibility to sporadic AD and FTLD have been reported. A polymorphism (Q7R) in saitohin gene inside the microtubule-associated protein tau gene has also been related to dementia. To determine the possible role of the two polymorphisms in susceptibility to AD and FTLD, we performed a case control study collecting 218 Italian sporadic dementia patients and 54 controls. We found a significant excess of 5-HTTLPR short alleles and an interaction between 5-HTTLPR and Q7R polymorphisms

check details in demented subjects. Our study confirms the role of 5-HTTLPR as a potential susceptibility factor for sporadic dementia in the Italian population, and suggests a possible interaction between 5-HTTLPR and Q7R polymorphisms in neurodegenerative diseases.”
“Despite strong evidence supporting the use of breast conservation therapy (BCT) in the treatment of breast carcinoma, the actual rates of use remain low. This article is a retrospective review of a sample of patients from the cancer registry of the Carolinas Medical Center (CMC), comparing breast conservation and mastectomy rates during an 11-year period. BCT rates have increased in CMC during this time frame and have reached national levels. Further research is needed to determine whether BCT rates can be used as a benchmark for the care of patients with cancer.”
“Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are useful tools for identifying paternity origin and male-female mixed samples because of their male-specificity, haploid inheritance and relatively simplicity. We focused on novel Y-STRs deposited in the human Genome database from DYS708 to DYS726. We typed 16 male-specific Y-STRs from males of a Chinese Han population residing in Shanxi Province (north China), including DYS708-719, DYS721-723, and DYS726, but failed in typing DYS720, DYS724 and DYS725. The 16 Y-STRs, with mean gene diversity (GD) of 0.

MethodsA prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlle

MethodsA prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in

China was conducted. One hundred and fifty-nine patients diagnosed with CVA (aged 18-75 years) were randomly divided into two groups to receive twice daily for 8 weeks, inhaled budesonide 100g plus either oral procaterol 25g or placebo. Primary and secondary efficacy variables were cough symptom severity scores and Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) life quality scores. Adverse events were also assessed.

ResultsThe budesonide/placebo and budesonide/procaterol groups contained Dinaciclib mouse 80 and 78 participants (one excluded for later diagnosis of eosinophilic bronchitis), respectively, with similar baseline characteristics. Daily cough score declined during treatment in both groups and was lower in the budesonide/procaterol group at 8 (0.44 vs 0.73) and 10 (0.36 vs 0.69) weeks (P<0.05). Compared with the budesonide/placebo group, the proportion of patients with a reduction of 3 points or greater (66% vs 42%) and that of patients scoring 0 points (63% vs 51%) was higher in the budesonide/procaterol group for daily cough scores (P<0.05). At 8 weeks, LCQ score improvement was superior in the budesonide/procaterol group (38.9419.24 vs 32.7118.92; P<0.05).


combined with budesonide was well tolerated and effective at improving cough VS-6063 symptoms and quality of life in patients with CVA.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, buy Tariquidar multicenter trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of procaterol combined with budesonide for treatment of patients with cough-variant asthma. Procaterol combined with budesonide was well tolerated and superior to budesonide

alone at improving cough symptoms and patient quality of life.”
“Health related quality of life (HRQoL) was characterized among patients with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and compared with the general Norwegian population.

A cross sectional, comparative design was chosen, and the samples comprised 196 NET patients and 5,258 individuals from the general Norwegian population.

We used Chi-square cross tab calculations to evaluate sociodemographic characteristics, T-tests for independent samples and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in order to compare HRQoL (SF-36) scores across a range of background variables. Furthermore, T-tests were used to analyze differences in HRQoL scores between the samples.

NET patients demonstrated significantly lower on all HRQoL subscales when compared with the general population with the lowest values on general health, physical limitation and vitality. Individuals above 70 years reported lower scores on physical functioning and physical limitations compared with those who were younger.

1 mg/ml In addition, anionic bitterness and saltiness were detec

1 mg/ml. In addition, anionic bitterness and saltiness were detected in all sample

solutions at 1 mg/ml. Furthermore, umami was detected in the PAR1, PAR2-a, and PAR3 sample solutions at 1 mg/ml. Detailing the analyses of the four taste factors on the four sample types, we found each type has its own characteristic taste pattern. On the basis of these results, we proposed a method for discriminating one PAR type from another by using the system.”
“In this paper the complex dispersion curves of the four lowest-order transverse magnetic modes of a dielectric Goubau line (epsilon > 0, mu > 0) are compared with those of a weakly dispersive negative index metamaterial (NIM) Goubau line. The vastly different dispersion curve structure Vactosertib solubility dmso for the NIM Goubau line is characterized by unusual features such as mode bifurcation, complex fold points, both proper and improper complex modes, and merging of complex and real modes. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3465330]“
“PURPOSE: selleckchem To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes of limbal relaxing incisions (LRIs) to reduce astigmatism at the time of apodized diffractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.

SETTING: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas,

Texas, USA.

METHODS: This retrospective review comprised consecutive patients who had LRIs at the time of lens extraction and AcrySof ReSTOR IOL implantation. A subgroup of patients had subsequent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for residual refractive error correction.

RESULTS: The study evaluated 73 eyes (59 patients); 21 eyes (28.7%) of 59 patients had further LASIK (LRI + LASIK). The mean follow-up was 13.2 months +/- 6.4 (SD). The mean keratometric astigmatism decreased from 1.49 +/- 0.71 diopters (D) preoperatively to 0.56 +/- 0.57 D at the last follow-up (P<.001). Although Sapanisertib supplier the LRI + LASIK group had significantly greater corneal astigmatism than the LRI-only group preoperatively (P = .005) and 1 month (P = .030) and 6-months (P = .014) postoperatively, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups at the last follow-up (P = .528). At the last follow-up, the

uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 or better and the uncorrected near visual acuity was J1 or better in 32 (76%) of 42 eyes in the LRI-only group and in 17 (81%) of 21 eyes in the LRI + LASIK group.

CONCLUSION: Limbal relaxing incisions at the time of apodized diffractive multifocal IOL implantation, with or without subsequent LASIK, were effective and safe in reducing astigmatism.”
“Five new phenylpropanoid glycosides, paraboside A, paraboside B, paraboside I, paraboside II and paraboside III along with the three known phenylethanoids, nuomioside A, caleolarioside B, isonuomioside A have been isolated from the whole plants of Paraboea glutinosa. The structures of the new compounds have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

It is recommended that patients born with SNHL who meet criteria

It is recommended that patients born with SNHL who meet criteria receive cochlear implants (CIs) by a target age of 12 months, however many children are being implanted MLN2238 in vitro at an older age. This study aims to describe populations of pre-lingual patients with SNHL that are at risk for delayed implantation and to identify and analyze barriers that cause this delay.

Methods: Charts of patients receiving a CI between January 2008 and June 2012 at a tertiary care cochlear implant center were reviewed retrospectively. We looked at patient demographics, age at hearing loss diagnosis, age at implantation,

and etiology of hearing loss. Barriers to implantation were identified through surveys

completed by team members.

Results: Fifty-seven CI recipients were identified of which 42 were in patients with pre-lingual SNHL. SNHL etiology included: cochlear dysplasia (18%), GJB2/GJB6 (17%), acquired (10%) extreme prematurity (9%), and idiopathic (46%). The median age of SNHL diagnosis for pre-lingual patients was 15 months. Compared to private insurance, public insurance status was associated with SNHL diagnosis at a significantly later median age (20.0 vs. 4.0 months, p = 0.024), and with a significantly longer median interval from diagnosis to implantation (25.5 vs. 11.0 months, p = 0.029). While cochlear implant team members identified delayed insurance approval and medical comorbidities as reasons for delayed implantation, the most significant find more factor identified was parental, with delayed/missed appointments or reluctance for evaluations or surgery.

Conclusion: 52% of patients with pre-lingual SNHL that met criteria for CI were implanted more than 12 months after diagnosis. Having public or no insurance was significantly associated with delayed implantation. Parental barriers were most common factors cited for delays in implantation. Overcoming these delays necessitates appropriate identification of at risk patients and creating a system to educate families and chaperone ATM/ATR inhibition them through the process.

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the cognitive effects of adjuvant hormonal therapies in breast cancer patients.

Participants and Methods: Post-menopausal breast cancer patients scheduled to receive tamoxifen (n = 31) or anastrozole (n = 14) completed neuro psychological testing around the time of commencement of treatment (T1), and again 5-6 months later (T2). A sample of healthy female volunteers (n = 28) was tested at comparable intervals. A standardized regression-based approach was used to assess cognitive change. This method uses test/retest scores of the healthy control group to generate an equation that predicts T2 scores from T1 scores.

“The epidemiology of spinal cord injury without radiograph

“The epidemiology of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) is less frequently reported in adults as compared with children. The annual incidence of SCIWORA was approximately 5.74% per million in Tianjin from 2004 to 2008. Importantly, the epidemiological characteristics of adult SCIWORA may be different from that in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiological-clinical data of patients with adult SCIWORA, and to relatively analyze the epidemiological features.

Inpatients with cervical SCIWORA who were 16 and above in Tianjin were admitted in municipal hospitals in Tianjin from 2004 to 2008; all the

patients received MRI scanning in sagittal and axial views. Epidemiological characteristics, such as injury origin, injury level or severity,

neurological see more scale and MRI feature were acquired.

In total, 203 patients were enrolled. The Tozasertib solubility dmso average age among the adult groups was 55.9 years (men 55.8 years, women 53.6 years). SCIWORA occurred more commonly in adults in the 46-60 age group, and falls were the leading cause of injury (52.2%), followed by vehicular injury (28.6%). The most predominantly affected level was C4/5 (48.7%), followed by C5/6 (30.5%) and C3/4 (12.8%), respectively. The occurrence of central cord syndrome (50.2%) with posterior longitudinal ligament tear (43.8%) was relatively higher than other injury patterns.

It is clear that adult cervical SCIWORA is different from that in the pediatric group. Our study highlights the epidemiological properties of adult SCIWORA in Tianjin, China. Differing from other reports, particularly epidemiology study, we represent the

first report regarding adult SCIWORA from China. As the geriatric population increases, it is very important to set up an individualized evaluation system based on a nationally scaled epidemiological database. The results from our study will be useful in assisting in the creation of MK-2206 such a database.”
“This review highlights relevant advances in the use of ionic liquids (ILs) for analytical extraction and purification of organic compounds from food and environmental matrices.

Following a technique-based structure, we discuss advantages and shortcomings of ILs compared to conventional volatile organic solvents. We focus on the use of ILs in modern miniaturized extraction techniques, highlighting recent trends. However, when relevant, we also consider more classical approaches to sample preparation.

We discuss remaining limitations, gaps detected and possible future developments in this research area.

Finally, we illustrate the feasibility of the several analytical procedures for the analysis of relevant organic and biomolecules in foodstuffs and environmental samples of different natures on the basis of representative studies of applications.