We could not find any significant difference

in virulence

We could not find any significant difference

in virulence between strains with unique genotypes and those in clusters.”
“To determine Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-C) functions as a mucosal selleck products adjuvant, we monitored its ability to modulate the immune response after intranasal immunization with hemagglutinin (HA) as an antigen. Mucosal and systemic immune responses with KML-C were compared to responses with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant. Intranasal co-administration of HA and KML-C in mice resulted in increased anti-HA antibody titers in both vaginal wash and serum. Isotyping analysis revealed that KML-C augmented HA-specific antibody titers of IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b isotypes. More than 5-fold of interleukin 2 (IL-2), 3-fold of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and 4-fold of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA were detected using real time PCR in splenocytes of mice immunized with HA plus KML-C. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis indicated that co-administration of KML-C increased

the subpopulation of HSP990 CD3/CD8 double positive T cells (16.4%) than control (10%). Taken together, these data demonstrate that KML-C has the ability to serve as a mucosal adjuvant.”
“Current generation of cobalt-oxide-based perpendicular magnetic recording media uses single or dual ruthenium intermediate layers in order to grow crystallographically textured, and magnetically isolated granular media. In this work, the potential

advantages of an antiferromagnetic iridium-manganese intermediate layer directly under the recording www.sellecn.cn/products/pf-06463922.html layer are highlighted. Owing to its close lattice matching with hexagonal cobalt, iridium-manganese which has the L1(2), or AuCu(3)-type crystal structure, can support the heteroepitaxial growth of the cobalt-based recording layer. In one of the media schemes described here, (111) textured iridium-manganese thin film was grown on 7.5 nm thick ruthenium layer. On the iridium-manganese as segregation layer, the Co-oxide-based magnetic recording layer showed perpendicular texture with Delta theta(50) below 4 degrees, coercivity of over 4000 Oe alongside magnetic exchange decoupling, average grain sizes of 6 nm with distributions under 14%, and improved thermal stability. Measurements of the anisotropy constant did not show any significant change and even an IrMn capping layer was observed to improve the thermal stability. The possible mechanisms through which the IrMn layer could affect the thermal stability are hypothesized. The initial layers of the magnetic recording layer on IrMn segregation layers also showed exchange-decoupled and segregated grains, which is unlike that observed on Ru segregation layers. In a second media scheme, (111) textured iridium- manganese thin film was grown on a crystalline soft magnetic underlayer belonging on top of amorphous soft underlayers.

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