This study was performed to evaluate and describe subjective expe

This study was performed to evaluate and describe subjective experiences of pain, sleeping patterns, and HRQoL in a cohort of PD patients with chronic pain.

Methods: A total of 45 participants with established PD for more than 2 years, and PD-related pain for the preceding three months, were recruited from three sites in Sweden. Data regarding time point for onset, duration and degree of pain parameters, body localization of pain, external

influences, and treatments were obtained. HRQoL was evaluated with the Short Form-36 (R) Health Survey, and sleeping patterns were registered with the Parkinson’s disease Sleep Scale, both completed along with a questionnaire.

Results: In one-third of participants, pain preceded G418 mw the PD diagnosis. Median pain score measured with a visual analog scale was 6.6 and 5.9 (for females AZD3965 and males, respectively) the week before the study. In almost half of the participants, pain was present during all their waking hours. Significantly

more females described their pain as troublesome, while more males described their pain as irritating. Feelings of numbness and creeping sensations at night were strongly associated with the maximal visual analog scale scores. Polypharmacy was common; 89% used medication for anxiety/insomnia, and 18% used antidepressants. Only one-third of patients who reported pain relief with analgesics had these prescribed on their drug lists. Sleep was characterized

by frequent awakenings. Urinary urgency and restless legs were frequently reported as troublesome. Patients rated HRQoL as significantly worse in all items compared with a healthy reference population matched for age and sex.

Conclusions: Experiences of chronic PD-related pain are complex; there is substantial sleep fragmentation and negative selleck chemical impact on HRQoL.”
“Objectives: Snoring during sleep is a major clinical symptom of adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy in paediatric patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of adenoid and tonsil size on snoring sound frequency and intensity in children.

Methods: Twenty-seven patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy were included the study. Adenoid size was graded from 1+ to 4+ by rigid endoscopy. Patients were staged (I-III) according to body mass index (BMI) and tonsil and adenoid size. Snoring was recorded and analysed. The analysis focused on the highest power frequency (Fmax) and snoring sound intensity levels (SSILs).

Results: SSIL and Fmax values for Stage III were significantly higher than those for Stages I and II. BMI for Stage III was higher than for Stages land II, and that for Stage II was higher than for Stage I. The BMI, SSIL, and Fmax values increased at each stage and tonsil/adenoid grade.

Conclusions: SSIL seems to be related to Adenoid and Tonsils size and BMI. As stage increased, both Fmax and SSILs increased proportionally.

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