pylori detected in the stomach.
The challenge procedure is relatively well established in the literature, but its efficiency varies at different institutions and is mainly dependent on the infecting strain utilized. In our laboratory, the H. pylori challenge has been effective in inducing infection in ∼80% of mice. Infected mice tended to have either a high number (∼1 × 104) of H. pylori copies μg−1 DNA – which likely indicates no protection as that was the level shown by unvaccinated mice – or a low number (∼1 × 102.5× 104) selleckchem of H. pylori copies μg−1 DNA – which likely indicates partial protection. The challenge method utilizes a high dose (1 × 109) of H. pylori organisms over a brief period, which is unlike natural human infection that occurs through exposure to low levels of H. pylori over a prolonged period. This artificial way of Panobinostat manufacturer infection may partially explain why some properly immunized mice missed protection. We could not find a good serological correlate of protection. Even though as a group, those with the highest serum IgG and IgA had the lowest geometric mean H. pylori copies μg−1 DNA, the correlation
was very poor at the individual level (r2=0.3037 and 0.0577 for IgG and IgA, respectively). This finding suggests that serum antibodies are markers of immune response but, by themselves, play a limited role in protection, and that other arms of the immune system (innate, cellular, mucosal) are more important. Unfortunately, in this set of experiments, we could not detect any stool antibodies. We expressed the level of infection as the number of H. pylori copies μg−1 purified DNA. This is unconventional as most studies express the level of infection as H. pylori copies mg−1 Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) of stomach. We decided to use DNA as the denominator because our detection method was based on PCR
of purified DNA and the purification efficiency may have varied for each specimen. Indeed, even though there was a good correlation between the weight of the stomach and the amount of DNA purified, it was less than perfect (r2=0.59). So that our results can be compared with the ones reported in other studies, in our experiments, on average, 3.4 H. pylori copies μg−1 DNA corresponded to 1 copy mg−1 stomach. In conclusion, our study adds to the evidence that rUreB is a promising H. pylori vaccine candidate, that aluminum hydroxide has a significant but modest adjuvant effect and that better adjuvants must be pursued. This work was partially funded by NIH grant R03CA128048. The authors have no competing interests. “
“Mammalian TLRs in adult animals serve indispensable functions in establishing innate and adaptive immunity and contributing to the homeostasis of surrounding tissues. However, the expression and function of TLRs during mammalian embryonic development has not been studied so far. Here, we show that CD45+ CD11b+ F4/80+ macrophages from 10.5-day embryo (E10.5) co-express TLRs and CD14.