In A. fumigatus, DNA smearing was found after treatment with H2O2 and AmB as well as in A. nidulans after treatment with phytosphingosine.[22, Ruxolitinib order 23] DNA smearing rather than a ladder was demonstrated by agarose electrophoresis in R. arrhizus after treatment with H2O2 and AmB. The apoptotic-like phenotype of R. arrhizus was also indentified using the TUNEL assay, which is more sensitive than DNA agarose electrophoresis for analysing apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Microscopic images revealed the presence of significant green fluorescence in the cells treated by high but non-fungicidal concentrations of the two triggers,
but minimal fluorescence was seen under low concentrations. These phenomena were also reported in many other fungi, such as S. cerevisiae treated with H2O2 and acetic acid, C. albicans treated with farnesol, A. fumigatus treated with H2O2 and AmB and A. fumigatus in the stationary phase.[7, 9, 23, 24] DHR123/PI double-staining by flow cytometry can better explain the change of apoptotic or dead cells. In our study, an apoptotic phenotype can be induced by low but toxic concentrations of both triggers through ROS accumulation
within cells, whereas dead cells stained with PI increased after treatment with high concentrations of the triggers. These findings indicate that treatment with low concentrations of both triggers can induce an apoptotic-like phenotype through ROS accumulation and ultimately cause death under
continued accumulation with increased PI-positive staining. It is well known that ROS plays a major role in signalling Selleckchem IDH inhibitor and/or effector functions in apoptosis. The production of ROS in apoptotic cells has been examined in other fungal cells, including C. albicans, S. cerevisiae and A. nidulans.[18, 26, 27] ROS accumulation has also been demonstrated in many fungal and mammalian cells and played a central role in the induction of apoptosis.[6, 7, 28] This study indicated that both H2O2 and AMB could induce the apoptotic-like phenotype in R. arrhizus, which might be usefully exploited in the search for and design of novel therapies in the future. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation (81371783) from the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for Ketotifen the content and writing of the paper. “
“The combination of amphotericin B and sodium deoxycholate is the formulation most used in clinical practice. The development of new agents such as amphotericin with lipid formulations, caspofungin, voriconazole and other azolic derivatives, promoted alternatives to amphotericin B deoxycholate. However, because of the high cost of these new drugs, their use is difficult in a scenario of limited resources. A few strategies have been devised to make the use of amphotericin B deoxycholate less toxic.