Of them, 54 patients were classified as

H0 (primary disc

Of them, 54 patients were classified as

H0 (primary disc degeneration Selleckchem VS-6063 without previous surgery), 98 as H1 (disc degeneration with associated herniation without previous surgery), 36 as H2 (disc degeneration with recurrence of disc herniation with previous surgery), and 33 as H3 (postdiscectomy syndrome with previous surgery). Clinical evaluation was based on Oswestry Disability Index and lumbar and radicular visual analogic scale. Each measurement was performed preoperatively, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively.

Results. Mean follow-up of the series was 30 months (24-72 months). A significant (P < 0.05) clinical improvement was found between preoperative and the last follow-up evaluation for each group. On a multivariate analysis between different groups, a significantly higher Oswestry Disability Index was found in the group classified Tariquidar as H3 (postdiscectomy syndrome) at the final follow-up. The size

of the effect was measured at +0.44 (0.19; 0.69).

Conclusion. Total lumbar disc arthroplasty provides a significant clinical improvement for patients with disc degenerative disease, with a 2-year minimal follow-up. The poorest results were found in patients with previous surgical procedure on the concerned level (postdiscectomy syndrome). These results can be helpful for selection of total disc arthroplasty indications and for the information that a surgeon must give to his or her own patient on the expected result after disc replacement.”
“The flavin monooxygenases (FMO) encoded by plant YUCCA

genes are thought to catalyze a rate-limiting step in the tryptamine pathway for indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis. Recent experiments with different plant models have indicate that YUCCA genes play essential roles in growth and development through their contribution to the local pool of free auxin. In this study we have characterized five new genes that encode YUCCA-like FMOs in the tomato genome (ToFZY2 to ToFZY6), including gene structure, conserved motifs and phylogenetic analyses. As a first step towards clarifying the individual functions of ToFZY genes, we have used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to conduct a systematic comparison of the steady-state mRNA levels of 6 ToFZY genes, in 33 samples representing major organs and the entire find more tomato life cycle. We followed an absolute quantification strategy which allowed us to cross-compare transcript levels among different ToFZY genes in a given spatiotemporal coordinate. Our results indicate that expression of ToFZY genes is temporally and spatially regulated, and that the distinctive expression pattern of each ToFZY gene partially overlaps with other members of the multigenic family. We compare our data with previous results in other plant species and make some predictions about the role of tryptamine pathway in tomato growth and development. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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