Measures of treatment complexity including simulations per linac course and radiation computer plans per linac course increased at steady rates of 3.6% (P=0.0019) and 3.2% (P = 0.0088) annually, respectively, but portals (fields) per linac treatment course increased exponentially after the implementation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The number of fractions per linac patient declined by 2.6% annually (P <0.0001).
Conclusions: This population-based study showed that radiation oncology workload increased at faster rates than the population or incidence of cancer. Measures of treatment complexity
indicate an increasing investment for each course of linac treatment, but also the adoption of hypofractionated regimens. These YH25448 cost results indicate that radiotherapy manpower requirements cannot be based on population or cancer incidence alone if current technological trends continue. (C) 2010 The Royal College FK228 in vitro of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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“Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is reemerging in Peru. VEE virus subtype ID in Peru has not been previously associated with severe disease manifestations. In 2006, VEE virus subtype ID was isolated from a boy with severe febrile disease and gastrointestinal bleeding, the strain contained 2 mutations within the PE2 region.”
“There has been an increase in the number of older patients on the transplant waiting list and acceptance of older donor kidneys. Although kidneys from older donors have been associated Fosbretabulin with poorer graft outcomes, whether there is a differential impact of donor age on outcomes in older recipients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor age on graft and patient survival in renal transplant (RT) recipients =60 years. Using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry,
outcomes of 1 037 RT recipients =60 years between 1995 and 2009 were analyzed. Donor age groups were categorized into 020, >2040, >4060, and >60 years. Compared with recipients receiving donor kidneys >60 years, those receiving donor kidneys >2040 years had lower risk of acute rejection (odds ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.27, 0.79; P < 0.01) and death-censored graft failure (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19, 0.72; P < 0.01). There was no association between donor age groups and death. With a corresponding growth in the availability of older donor kidneys and the observed lack of association between donor age and patient survival in RT recipients =60 years, preferential allocation of older donor kidneys to RT recipients =60 years may not disadvantage the life expectancy of these patients.”
“By scanning near-field optical microscopy, we measured the localization of the electromagnetic field on an array of gold nanodisks illuminated in a transmission mode. We experimentally observed that the field is localized between the disks, with a pattern oriented along the incident polarization direction.