However, these effects have not been consistently reported, which may reflect the modest size of the samples studied to date. Employing a meta-analytic approach, we examined the effect of the BDNF val(66)met polymorphism on human memory (5922 subjects) and hippocampal structure (2985 subjects) and physiology (362 subjects). Our results suggest that variations in the rs6265 SNP of click here the BDNF gene have a significant effect on memory performance, and on both the structure and physiology of the hippocampus, with carriers
of the met allele being adversely affected. These results underscore the role of BDNF in moderating variability between individuals in human memory performance and in mediating some of the neurocognitive impairments underlying
neuropsychiatric disorders. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The incorporation of viral envelope (Env) glycoproteins into nascent particles is an essential step in the production of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This process has been shown to require interactions between Env and the matrix (MA) domain of the Gag polyprotein. Previous studies indicate that several residues in the N-terminal region of MA are required for Env incorporation. However, the precise mechanism by which Env proteins are acquired during virus assembly has yet to be fully defined. Here, selleck chemical we examine whether a highly conserved glutamate at position 99 in the C-terminal helix is required for Acesulfame Potassium MA function and HIV-1 replication. We analyze a panel of mutant viruses that contain different amino acid substitutions at this position using viral infectivity studies, virus-cell fusion assays, and immunoblotting. We find that E99V mutant viruses are defective for fusion with cell membranes and thus are noninfectious. We show that E99V mutant particles of HIV-1 strains LAI and NL4.3 lack wild-type levels of Env proteins. We identify a compensatory
substitution in MA residue 84 and show that it can reverse the E99V-associated defects. Taken together, these results indicate that the C-terminal hydrophobic pocket of MA, which encompasses both residues 84 and 99, has a previously unsuspected and key role in HIV-1 Env incorporation.”
“Binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is a necessary prerequisite for the biological activity of the proinflammatory chemokine RANTES in vivo. We have applied protein engineering methods to modulate equilibrium-binding affinity as well as binding kinetics of RANTES towards its GAG ligand which also altered the chemokine’s oligomerization behavior. Out of 10 mutants, A22K and H23K were chosen for further in vitro and in vivo characterization because their stability was comparable with wild-type (wt) RANTES. In chemical cross-linking experiments, A22K gave higher and H23K lower molecular weight aggregates compared with wtRANTES as shown on SDS-PAGE.