11b protocol  specifies two medium access coordination functions, the mandatory distributed coordination function (DCF) that is based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) and the optional point coordination function (PCF). Unlike wired nodes, wireless nodes cannot detect collisions because they are half-duplex, i.e. they cannot send and receive signals at the same time. CSMA/CA delivers a best effort service, thereby providing no bandwidth and delay guarantees.In IEEE 802.11, each node senses the medium before starting a transmission. If the medium is idle for at least a DCF interframe space (DIFS), the packet is transmitted immediately.
If the medium is sensed busy, the nod
Although surface soil moisture only constitutes 0.
0012% of all water available on Earth , it plays an extremely important role in different hydrological processes. During precipitation events, soil moisture controls the infiltration rate, and consequently the amount of runoff produced. The latter process greatly influences erosion processes and determines resulting flood events. The wetness of the soil also controls the evapotranspiration rate and thus the micro-meteorology. Especially information on the spatial distribution of soil moisture, caused by micro-topography, vegetation, and stochastic precipitation events, is of major importance for watershed management, as it allows for optimizing the reallocation of water supplies during dry periods, or aids in predicting and managing high tides and floods during extreme rainfall events.
From an agronomic point of view, soil moisture is a crucial variable for crop development and is used to monitor crop temporal and spatial variation for important management decisions related to irrigation scheduling and precision farming.Remote sensing offers the potential for monitoring surface features at the regional scale. Anacetrapib Particularly, sensing in the microwave region may deduce spatial soil moisture information as the detected microwave signal is in part influenced by the dielectric properties of the soil, and thus the moisture content [2-4]. For operational purposes, spaceborne Entinostat platforms are preferred as they allow for a global coverage at regular time intervals .
The only satellites that can currently meet the spatial resolution requirements needed for capturing small-scale soil moisture patterns are active microwave sensors, of which Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is the most common imaging active microwave configuration . However, the temporal coverage needed for many hydrological modeling applications (1-5 days repeat cycle ) require temporal coverages which currently cannot be met by most available SAR sensors.