We suggest that resident fibroblast activation plays a critical r

We suggest that resident fibroblast activation plays a critical role in the process of renal fibrosis during aristolochic acid toxicity.”
“The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high fat and low carbohydrate and protein diet. It is used in the clinical treatment of epilepsy, in order to decrease cerebral excitability. KD is usually composed by long-chain triglycerides (LCT) while medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) diet is PS-341 price beginning to be used in some clinical treatment of disorders of pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Our study aimed to analyze the effects

of medium- and long-chain KD on cerebral electrical activity, analyzing the propagation of the phenomenon of cortical spreading depression (CSD). Three groups of weaned rats (21 days old) received, for 7 weeks, either a control (AIN-93G diet), or Epacadostat price a MCT-KD (rich in tribeptanoin oil), or a LCT-KD (rich in soybean oil). They were compared to another three groups (21 days old) receiving the same diets for just 10 days. CSD propagation was evaluated just after ending the dietary treatments. Results showed that short-term KD treatment resulted in a significant reduction of the CSD velocity of propagation (control group:

4.02 +/- 1.04 mm/min; MCT-KD: 0.81 +/- 1.46 mm/min and LCT-KD: 2.26 +/- 0.41 mm/min) compared to the control group. However, long-term treatment with both KDs had no effect on the CSD velocity (control group: 3.10 +/- 0.41 mm/min, MCT-KD: 2.91 +/- 1.62 mm/min, LCT-KD: 3.02 +/- 2.26 mm/min) suggesting that both short-term KDs have a Selleckchem LGX818 positive effect in decreasing brain cerebral excitability in young animals. These data show for the first time that triheptanoin has an effect on central nervous system. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a specific histological biomarker for diagnosing early tubular injury on renal biopsies. In this study, KIM-1 expression was quantitated in renal transplant

biopsies by immunohistochemistry and correlated with renal function. None of the 25 protocol biopsies showed detectable tubular injury on histologic examination, yet 28% had focal positive KIM-1 expression. Proximal tubule KIM-1 expression was present in all biopsies from patients with histological changes showing acute tubular damage and deterioration of kidney function. In this group, higher KIM-1 staining predicted a better outcome with improved blood urea nitrogen ( BUN), serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over an ensuing 18 months. KIM-1 was expressed focally in affected tubules in 92% of kidney biopsies from patients with acute cellular rejection. By contrast, there was little positive staining for Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, in any of the groups.

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