To investigate the effects of KRG in a GC-induced osteoporosis mo

To investigate the effects of KRG in a GC-induced osteoporosis model, mice implanted with prednisolone pellets were given KRG (100 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg) orally. In 5 wks, bone loss was measured by microcomputed tomography. Trabecular bone loss in the femur was observed in the GC control group. However, mice in the oral KRG-treated group showed a significant reduction in bone loss (Fig. 8). In addition to their use in patients undergoing organ transplantation, GCs have been used in VX-809 molecular weight the treatment of autoimmune, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal

disorders. A common side effect of long-term GC therapy is reduced bone density, which is the most prevalent form of secondary osteoporosis after menopause. Increased osteoblast apoptosis has been demonstrated in patients with GC-induced osteoporosis [19]. Mice implanted with GCs also have a higher number of PD0325901 molecular weight apoptotic osteoblasts that inhibit bone formation [20]. In vitro studies have also revealed that GCs can induce the apoptosis of osteoblasts [21]. These findings indicate that increased osteoblast apoptosis is responsible for GC-induced bone loss or osteoporosis. The apoptotic pathway with multiple interacting components is complicated, and the important steps in this cascade involve caspase enzymes, which are a family of proteins that play a role in the

degradation of cells targeted to undergo apoptosis. Caspase-3 is an effector caspase that cleaves nucleases as well as cellular substrates, and caspase-9 is an initiator caspase that is involved in mitochondrial damage [6]. Furthermore, several reports demonstrated that the Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is essential for cell survival, whereas the activation of JNK and p38 plays an important role in cell death signaling [22] and [23]. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway is also viewed as a key factor for cell survival in different cell systems [24]. Notably, the inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and subsequent AKT phosphorylation appear to be important mechanisms of Dex-induced apoptosis. In the present study, the

mRNA levels of caspase-3, -6, -7, and -9 in cells treated with both Dex and KRG were observed to decrease compared to those in cells treated with Dex only. This antiapoptotic effect also appeared to be involved in p-AKT Adenosine triphosphate activation and p-JNK inhibition. Bone-forming osteoblasts are derived from mesenchymal precursor cells, and the maturation of preosteoblasts differentiated from mesenchymal precursor cells plays a role in the rebuilding of resorbed bone by elaborating a matrix that becomes mineralized. These preosteoblasts become committed by signals for the activation of osteogenic genes, which are recognizable near the bone surface due to their proximity to surface osteoblasts and the histochemical detection of ALP enzyme activity, one of the earliest markers of the osteoblast phenotype.

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