To estimate the incidence and prevalence of work-related diseases, the most robust way would be to undertake detailed etiological studies of exposed populations in which disease outcomes can be studied in relation to risk factors at work and other potential causative factors. However, this type of studies can rarely be performed on such a scale that the findings can serve as an estimate of the prevalence of several work-related diseases in larger populations. Thus, the common alternative approach is to rely
on self-report by asking this website people whether they suffer from work-related illness using open, structured, or semi-structured interviews, or (self-administered) questionnaires. Self-report measures are used to measure health conditions buy ARRY-438162 4EGI-1 nmr but also to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of respondents (e.g., age, work experience, education) and about the respondents’ occupational history of exposure, demands, and tasks. Sometimes self-report is the only way to gather this information because many health and exposure conditions cannot easily be observed directly; in those cases, it is not possible to know what a person is experiencing without asking
them. When using self-report measures, it is important to realize that they are potentially vulnerable to distortion due to a range of factors, including social desirability, dissimulation, and response style (Murphy and Davidshofer 1994; Lezak 1995). For example, how people think about their illness is reflected in their illness perceptions (Leventhal et al. 1980). In general, these illness perceptions contain beliefs about the identity of the illness, the causes,
the duration, the personal consequences of the illness, and the extent to which the illness can be controlled either personally or by treatment. As a result, people with the same symptoms or illness or injury can have widely different perceptions of their condition (Petrie and Weinman 2006). It is therefore clear that the validity Celecoxib of the information on self-reported disease relies heavily on the ability of participants to specifically self-report their medical condition. From various studies, we know that the type of health condition may be a determinant for a valid self-report (Oksanen et al. 2010; Smith et al. 2008; Merkin et al. 2007). From comparing self-reported illness with information in medical records, these studies showed that diseases with clear diagnostic criteria (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction) tended to have higher rates of agreement than those that were more complicated to diagnose by a physician or more difficult for the patient to understand (e.g., asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, heart failure). The self-assessment of work relatedness can be considered a part of the perception of the causes of an illness.