This could be due to the binding

This could be due to the binding PLX-4720 cell line of NKp46 mAbs used for sorting and which increased the degranulation of NK cells compared with negatively sorted NK-cell subsets (data not shown). However, we did not detect “all-or-none” responses in the two murine NK-cell subsets.

NK cells from all subsets have overlapping functional characteristics, and it was reported in humans and mice that, e.g. IFN-γ production can change over a short period of time 29, 30. This demonstrates the variability of NK-cell functions. In conclusion, our data suggest the applicability of the surface marker CXCR3 for a better discrimination of murine NK-cell subsets resembling those in humans. Characteristics of the discussed NK-cell subsets are summarized in Fig. 7. This will form the basis for in vivo analyses of defined NK-cell subsets in animal models. The differential coexpression patterns of markers such as CXCR3 and CD27 on NK cells enables a more detailed characterization of NK-cell populations and indicates that the entire NK-cell compartment is composed of more than just the two subsets, which have been the focus of recent NK-cell research. For all experiments, 8–16 wk-old female C57BL/6 mice

(Charles River Laboratories, Wilmongton, BIBW2992 MA, USA and animal facility Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany) were used. Mice were bred under specific pathogen-free conditions and maintained in filter-topped cages under conventional conditions. Experiments involving animals were performed in compliance with federal and institutional guidelines (according to FELASA). Peripheral blood was taken from the retro orbital plexus and collected into heparinized tubes. White blood cells were prepared by hypotonic lysis of red blood cells (RBC lysis buffer, containing

NH4Cl) and washed in PBS containing 3% FCS (PAA Lab, Cölbe, Germany). Mice were selleck chemical euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation or cervical dislocation. Organs (LN, spleen, uterus, thymus, liver and lung) were extracted, sliced and homogenized with a 40 μm nylon (BD Pharmingen, Heidelberg, Germany) or steel mesh. For isolation of BM cells, femurs and tibiae were flushed with PBS using a 27G syringe. When necessary, cell suspensions were enriched for lymphocytes via density gradient (Lympholyte M, Cedarlane, ON, Canada) or treated with red blood cell lysis buffer (0.146 M NH4Cl, 0.1 mM EDTA-Na2, 1g NaHCO3, pH 7.3). The mouse-specific mAb Ly49D (4E5, FITC), Ly49G2 (4D11, FITC), Ly49C/I (5E6, FITC), NK1.1 (PK136, FITC, PE, APC), CD3 (145-2C11, FITC, PE, PerCP), CD16 (2.4G2, PE), CD27 (LG.3A10, PE), CD45 (30-F11, FITC, PerCP), CD107a (1D4B, FITC), CD122 (TM-β1, PE) and IFN-γ (XMG1.2, PE) were purchased from BD Biosciences (Heidelberg, Germany). In addition, the following mAb were used: CD3 (145-2C11, AlexaFluor® 647), CD27 (LG.3A10, PerCP/Cy5.5, Biolegend, San Diego, CA, USA), CD11b (M1/70.

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