The physiotherapy management provided was at the discretion of the treating therapist, including treatment type, frequency, referral, and discharge according to usual practice. In an attempt to ensure physiotherapy treatment reflected usual physiotherapy care, no directives were provided regarding the nature of physiotherapy treatment during the study. Treatments applied included manual techniques and exercise therapy at the discretion of the therapist. To ensure
appropriate care was provided to participants with potential psychological problems, every participant was screened for high levels of non-specific psychological distress using the Kessler BGB324 ic50 10 Questionnaire (Kessler et al 2002). In the event of a participant scoring above
30, which is associated with a high probability of serious psychological Navitoclax supplier distress (Victorian Public Health Survey, 2006), the treating physiotherapist was notified and requested to refer the participant to an appropriately trained professional within the health service. Participants in the experimental group also received health coaching via telephone. The telephone coaching involved the application of health coaching principles by a physiotherapist with three years of clinical experience and three years of tertiary level teaching experience who had received three days of training in health coaching. A coaching protocol was developed to guide each coaching session. The first coaching session aimed to develop rapport and identify which of the
three activities the participant had identified on the Patient Specific Functional Scale was most important for them to focus on. The first step in the coaching process was to identify whether the participant was not contemplating return, considering return, attempting to return, or maintaining return to the nominated activity (Prochaska et al 1992). Consistent with this stage-based approach to behaviour change, information was used by the coach to help determine which coaching techniques were likely to be more useful during coaching. The second step was to ask the participant to rate the importance of returning to the activity in one month’s time on a scale from 0 to 10, where the 0 was not important at all and 10 was as important as it could be. Where the participant reported a score below 7, the coach applied techniques such as motivational interviewing to increase the perceived importance of the activity. Once the score was 7 or higher, the coach moved on to establish the participant’s confidence about returning to the activity. This third step required participants to rate their confidence to return to the activity in one month’s time from 0 to 10, where 0 was not confident at all and 10 was as confident as they could be. Where the score was below 7, the coach applied cognitive behavioural strategies to increase confidence.