The electropherograms obtained were analyzed using the sequencing analysis software (Sequence Navigator, version 1.01, Applied Biosystems). The nt and deduced aa sequences were compared with sequences available in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) GenBank database using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) program. Phylogenetic and molecular Cisplatin ic50 evolutionary analyses were conducted using MEGA version 4.0 [36]. Dendrograms constructed were confirmed by two different methods,

neighbor joining and maximum parsimony. The data were analyzed using Epi Info 2002 and Stata 10.0. Chi square and Mann Whitney U tests were performed to determine the significance of differences observed between groups. Partial nucleotide SCH727965 chemical structure sequences of VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4, VP6, VP7, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 of the G10P[15] strains were submitted to the GenBank database and their accession numbers are HQ660637, HQ660638, HQ660639, FJ798615, FJ798616, FJ798617, HQ660640, HQ660641, HQ660642, FJ798618, HQ660643 respectively. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of the 394 children enrolled in the study was 10 (7) months, with >90% of children less than 2 years of age. The median Vesikari score of diarrheal severity was 11.0 and the children required

admission for a mean duration of 2.8 days. Of 394 children screened, we found that 158 children were infected with rotavirus (40%). The common G types identified in order of frequency were G1 (47/158, 29.7%), G2 (43/158, 27.2%), G9 (22/158, 13.9%), G10 (2/158, 1.2%), G12 (1/158, 0.6%) and mixed infections (27/158, 17.8%). The common P types were P[4] accounting for 57/158 (36%) samples, P[8] 57/158 (36%), P[11] 3/158 (1.8%) and P[6] 2/158 (1.2%). Mixed infections with varied P types were seen in 5 (3.2%). G typing alone was possible in 23 samples below (14.4%), only P typing in 5 samples (3.6%) and 11 samples were completely untypeable (6.9%). The common G:P combinations seen

in children were, G2P[4] in 39/158 (24.6%) samples, G1P[8] in 29/158 (18.3%) samples, G9P[8] in 21/158 (13.2%) samples, G1P[4] in 4/158 (2.5%) samples and G10P[11] in 1/158 sample (0.6%) (Fig. 1a). We collected total of 627 samples from animals with diarrhea, including 589 cows (25 were calves), 2 buffaloes, 11 bullocks and 25 goats (11 were kids). The mean duration of diarrhea was 4.5 days for adult animals, 4 days for calves and 3 days for goat kids. Out of 627 animals we found 35 (1 bullock, 2 goats, 32 cows) infected with rotavirus (5.5%). The common G types identified in order of frequency were G6 (17/35, 48.5%), G2 (10/35, 28%), G10 (4/35, 11%), G8 (2/35, 5.7%) and mixed infections (2/35, 5.7%).