The catalysis of the gold nanoparticles is possibly IWR-1 order due to the efficient electron transfer from the BH4- ion to nitro compounds mediated by the nanoparticles. This could be attributed to the higher driving force of particle-mediated electron transfer caused by their large Fermi level shift in the presence of highly electron-injecting species such as borohydride ions. Figure 8 Absorption
spectra and plots of ln A t / A 0 and A t / A 0 versus time. (a) Time-dependent UV-vis absorption spectra for catalytic reduction of 4-NP by NaBH4 in the presence of AuNPs. (b) Plots of ln (A t/A 0) and A t/A 0 versus reaction time for the reduction of 4-NP; A 0 and A t were the absorption peak at 400 nm initially and at time t. Condition used throughout: [4-NP] = 0.5 × 10-4 M, [NaBH4] = 1.0 × 10-2 M, and T = 25°C. Table 1 GDC-0973 molecular weight Recent studies on the reduction of 4-NP with biologically synthesized AuNPs Composition T(K) Size (nm) Rate constant (s -1) α-Cyclodextrin-coated Sepantronium nmr AuNPs  298 11 to 26 2.98 to 4.65 × 10-3 Au-calcium alginate composite  291 to 306 5 ± 2 0.23 to 0.33 × 10-3 AuNPs synthesized with fruit extract (Prunus domestica)  298 4 to 38 1.9 to 5.1× 10-3 AuNPs synthesized with protein extract (Rhizopus oryzae)  303 5 to 65 2.81 to 4.13× 10-3 KGM-synthesized AuNPs
(this work) 298 12 to 31 6.03 × 10-3 Conclusions In this study, we describe a facile and economically viable route for the synthesis of well-dispersed spherical gold nanoparticles using konjac glucomannan. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibit uniform spherical shape, a narrow size distribution with a mean diameter of 21.1 ± 3.2 nm, and excellent stability after 3 months of storage. The morphology Resveratrol and crystalline structure were characterized by TEM and XRD. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of AuNPs and the role of KGM both as reducing
agent and stabilizer were analyzed by the results of UV-vis, TEM, DLS, and FTIR. Finally, the as-prepared gold nanoparticles were found to serve as effective catalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4. Our work promotes the use of natural polysaccharide for the biosynthesis of nanomaterials, and more efforts should be made to extend their applications in biologically relevant systems. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Nos. 2012YQ090194 and 2012AA06A303), the Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51473115 and 21276192), and the Ministry of Education (No. NCET- 11–0372). References 1. Hu M, Chen J, Li Z-Y, Au L, Hartland GV, Li X, Marquez M, Xia Y: Gold nanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications. Chem Soc Rev 2006, 35:1084–1094. 10.1039/b517615hCrossRef 2.