The canyon – a rectangular cross-section tube – lay in the surfac

The canyon – a rectangular cross-section tube – lay in the surface of a schematic planet. In the canyon, there were three types of spaceship marked by different colors (blue, red, and green). The color of the controlled spaceship was blue. That was directed with the gamepad along the horizontal dimension of the canyon. In every second, one spaceship appeared at the start of the canyon and moved towards the blue spaceship. The color of the spaceship was red with 0.6 probability and green with 0.4 probability.

The aim of the task was to avoid the red spaceships and to catch the green ones with the controlled spaceship. To perform the task properly, participants Sunitinib had to fixate in the location where the spaceships appeared. For more details, see Sulykos & Czigler (2011). Electroencephalographic

activity was recorded (DC, 70 Hz; sampling rate, 500 Hz; Synamps2 amplifier, NeuroScan recording system) with Ag/AgCl electrodes placed at 61 locations according to the extended 10–20 system by use of an elastic electrode cap (EasyCap). The reference electrode was on the nose tip, and offline re-referenced to the average activity.‎ Horizontal electrooculographic buy Y-27632 activity was recorded with a bipolar configuration between electrodes positioned lateral to the outer canthi of the eyes. Vertical eye movement was monitored with a bipolar montage between electrodes placed above and below the right eye. The electroencephalographic signal was bandpass-filtered offline, with cutoff frequencies of 0.1 and 30 Hz (24-dB slope). Epochs of duration 600 ms, including a 100-ms prestimulus interval, were extracted for each event, and averaged separately for the standard and deviant stimuli. The mean voltage during the 100-ms prestimulus interval was used as the baseline for amplitude measurements, and epochs with an amplitude change exceeding ± 50 μV on any channel were excluded from further analysis. Event-related potentials were averaged separately

for the standard and deviant stimuli (symmetric and random) in the two conditions. Responses to the third to the seventh standards after a deviant were included in the standard-related ERPs. To identify change-related activities, ERPs elicited by standard stimuli were subtracted filipin from ERPs elicited by deviant stimuli in the reverse condition. Note that, in many studies, vMMN was calculated as the difference between the ERPs elicited by deviant and standard of the same stimulus sequence. With this method, the effect of physical differences between the deviant and standard and the effect of memory-related mismatch effects are confounded. Therefore, comparison of ERPs elicited by identical stimuli is highly recommended (Kujala et al., 2007). Furthermore, comparison of physically identical stimuli (presented frequently/infrequently) in different conditions will not be sufficient to get rid of refractoriness effects adding to plain memory-related effects (Kimura et al., 2009).

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