The adverse affects of sympatholysis 12, 14 and 16 may have canceled any therapeutic effect of bucindolol Cilengitide purchase in β1389 Gly carriers and led to a nonsignificant increase in AF in patients with a [β1389 Gly carrier + α2c322–325 Del carrier] genotype. There are multiple lines of evidence linking high levels of β1-adrenergic
signaling, as predicted for β1389 Arg/Arg homozygotes, to the development of AF. Higher adrenergic activity has been shown to increase the inducibility of AF in humans and dogs in a dose-dependent manner 19 and 20, and in a model of ischemic cardiomyopathy, dogs that developed AF had higher NE levels (18). Furthermore, in isolated human right atrial preparations, isoproterenol infusion has been shown to increase the frequency of atrial early and delayed after-depolarizations, phenomena
that have Rigosertib chemical structure been implicated in initiating AF (21). Bucindolol is especially effective in inhibiting signaling through β1389 Arg ARs, through the novel mechanisms of facilitating inactivation of constitutively active receptors (the property of inverse agonism) (11) and NE lowering (12), as well as through high-affinity competitive antagonism (6). The primary limitation of the current substudy is the post hoc nature of the analysis. AF was not a prespecified efficacy endpoint, and the data were not adjudicated but rather collected
from investigator-reviewed adverse event case report forms and serial ECGs, similar to the approach used by van Veldhuisen et al. (22). Thus, some AF events were likely missed, and in the case of the 15% of events that were detected by ECG, only the onset of AF could have been much earlier than the recorded date. On the other hand, using adverse event forms and ECGs to capture new-onset AF events represented a blinded, nonbiased way to assess arrhythmia occurrence with 85% of the events being symptomatic. Based on the use of adverse event case report forms and ECGs, it is likely that most AF events of more than several hours duration were detected, with the onset contemporaneous to detection in a substantial majority of cases. Another limitation of the current Avelestat (AZD9668) analysis is the relatively small number of new-onset AF events. Although the entire cohort contained 190 events, the largest number reported in any HFREF β-blocker trial (7), the DNA substudy had only 80 events, and after pharmacogenetic subgrouping the number of events in each group was further reduced by ∼50%. These limitations will be addressed in a planned study of AF prevention in β1389 Arg/Arg genotype HFREF patients who are randomized to bucindolol versus. metoprolol, a β-blocker that does not exhibit pharmacogenetic modulation of clinical therapeutic responses (23).