Socio-economic and geographic disparities in health and intervent

Socio-economic and geographic disparities in health and intervention selleck kinase inhibitor impact may be highly correlated at the sub-national level, in part due to the geographic clustering of socio-economic characteristics such as wealth and education. In order to explore this, we also estimated the geographical distribution of rotavirus vaccination effects

for one country – India. Esposito et al. developed a national model of rotavirus introduction and estimated the benefit and cost-effectiveness for India. They estimate that rotavirus vaccination could prevent about one-third of rotavirus-associated deaths in India, suggesting that improving current vaccine coverage would significantly increase vaccination impact [28]. This model includes estimates of rotavirus mortality and vaccination coverage by state from DHS data [26] using the same method as described above for wealth quintiles. In order to characterize and compare the distribution of key outcomes at the national level, we developed concentration curves and concentration indices [29]. For a given outcome, the concentration curve graphs the fraction of that outcome that occurs

within different fractions of the population ranked by wealth; for example, the portion of national vaccinations occurring in the bottom 10, 20, and 50 percent of the population ranked by wealth. The concentration index is a single dimensional number between −1 and 1 that represents the extent to which the concentration curve of an outcome differs from the line of equity where the bottom x percent of the population accounts for x percent

of the outcomes. We estimated the health cost due to disparities in vaccination between wealth quintiles within each country by modeling a scenario in which vaccination rates in all quintiles are equal to that of the quintile with the highest coverage. Detailed information is presented for Methisazone the 8 countries with the highest rotavirus mortality estimates and available distributional data from DHS. Fig. 1 shows the estimated co-distribution of under-5 rotavirus mortality and vaccination coverage by wealth quintile for 8 countries. Each line represents a different country and each point in the line represents one wealth quintile in that country. In general coverage was highest and mortality lowest in the richest quintile. However countries varied in the relative disparities for each of the variables. Fig. 2 shows the benefits (under-5 rotavirus deaths averted per 1000 births) and cost-effectiveness ratio (CER, $/DALY) associated with rotavirus vaccination for each wealth quintile within the 8 countries. Each point in the figure represents a different quintile. In most countries, the CER is highest (least cost-effective) for the richest quintile and the benefit is the lowest, primarily due to lower estimated mortality rates.

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