Second and third ordination axes are plotted showing 6 4% and 3 3

Second and third ordination axes are plotted showing 6.4% and 3.3% of the total variability in the dataset, respectively. B: Comparison of the HTF-Microbi.Array probe LY2835219 cell line fluorescence signals between atopics and controls. Only probes showing a different trend between the two groups (P < 0.3) are shown. On the basis of the HTF-Microbi.Array fluorescence data, the relative contribution of the major phyla in atopics and controls was calculated (Figure 2). At high taxonomic level, atopics and controls showed a comparable overall phylogenetic composition of the faecal microbiota. Indeed, their microbiota resulted largely

dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, Evofosfamide mouse which together accounted for up to 90% of the faecal microbial community. With a relative abundance ranging from 1 to 5%, Fusobacteria,

Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were sub-dominant components. However, focusing at lower taxonomic level, significant differences in the relative contribution of certain microbial groups were detected. In particular, atopics were characterized by a lower relative contribution of members of the Clostridium cluster Ruxolitinib mouse IV (atopics, 20.9% – controls, 28.7%; P = 0.01) and a concomitant relative increase in Enterobacteriaceae (atopics, 2.4% – controls, 1.2%; P = 0.009) and Fusobacteria (atopics, 1.9% – controls, 1.2%; P = 0.001). Figure 2 Relative contribution of the principal intestinal microbial groups in the faecal microbiota of atopics and controls. For each HTF-Microbi.Array probe, the relative fluorescence contribution was calculated as percentage of the total fluorescence. Sub-probes were excluded. Data represent the mean of the probe relative fluorescence contribution in atopics (n = 19) and

controls (n = 12). P values derive from a two-sided t-test. The abundance of F. prausnitzii, A. muciniphila, Enterobacteriaceae, SB-3CT Clostridium cluster IV, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus group in the faecal microbiota of atopics and controls was investigated by qPCR analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene. As reported in Table 3, respect to healthy controls, atopics were significantly depleted in F. prausnitzii, A. muciniphila and members of the Clostridium cluster IV, and tended to be depleted in Bifidobacterium and enriched in Enterobacteriaceae. Table 3 qPCR quantification of F. prausnitzii , A. muciniphila , Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium cluster IV, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus group in the faecal microbiota of atopics and healthy controls   16S rRNA gene copies/μg fecal DNA   Bacterial species/group Atopics Controls Pvalue Faecalibacterium prausnitzii 6.17E + 06 2.03E + 07 0.0014 Akkermansia muciniphila 3.01E + 05 5.03E + 05 0.0190 Enterobacteriaceae 3.86E + 04 1.19E + 04 0.3500 Clostridium cluster IV 4.46E + 06 1.55E + 07 0.0035 Bifidobacterium 1.08E + 06 1.72E + 06 0.0850 Lactobacillus group 3.75E + 02 5.48E + 02 0.6410 For each bacterial species/group, the mean 16S rRNA copy number per μg of faecal DNA is reported.

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