Methods: Ninety patients who underwent extensive segmental artery

Methods: Ninety patients who underwent extensive segmental artery sacrifice (median, 13; range, 9-15) during open surgical repair from June 1994 to December 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. Fifty-five patients (mean age, 65 +/- 12 years; 49% were Selleckchem Sapanisertib male), most with extensive Crawford

type II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, had a single procedure (single-stage group). Thirty-five patients (mean age, 62 +/- 14 years; 57% were male) had 2 procedures (2-stage group), usually Crawford type III or IV repair after operation for Crawford type I descending thoracic aneurysm. The median interval between the 2-stage procedures was 5 years (3 months to 17 years). There were no significant differences

between the groups with regard to age, gender, cause of the aneurysm, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, urgency, previous cerebrovascular accidents, year of procedure, or cerebrospinal fluid drainage. In single-stage procedures, hypothermic circulatory arrest was used in 29% of patients, left-sided heart bypass was used in 40% of patients, and partial cardiopulmonary bypass was used in 27% of patients. Somatosensory-evoked potentials were monitored in all patients, and motor-evoked PF-02341066 supplier potentials were monitored in 39% of patients. Cerebrospinal fluid was drained in 84% of patients.

Results: Overall hospital mortality was 11.1%. There were no significant differences in mortality, stroke, postoperative bleeding, infection, renal failure, or pulmonary insufficiency between the groups. However, 15% of patients in the single-stage group had permanent Selleck Enzalutamide spinal cord injury versus none in the 2-stage group (P = .02). The significantly lower rate of paraplegia and paraparesis in the 2-stage group occurred despite a significantly higher number of segmental arteries sacrificed in this group: a median of 14 (11-15) versus 12 (9-15) (P < .0001).

Conclusion: A staged approach to extensive thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair may reduce the incidence of spinal cord injury. This

is of particular importance in designing strategies involving hybrid or entirely endovascular procedures. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010;139:1464-72)”
“Plants are replete with thousands of proteins and small molecules, many of which are species-specific, poisonous or dangerous. Over time humans have learned to avoid dangerous plants or inactivate many toxic components in food plants, but there is still room for ameliorating food crops (and plants in general) in terms of their allergens and toxins content, especially in their edible parts. Inactivation at the genetic rather than physical or chemical level has many advantages and classical genetic approaches have resulted in significant reduction of toxin content.

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