immitis proposed by Sandhu et al. (1995) presents 100% similarity with three C. immitis 28S rDNA sequences deposited in the database . However, this probe also presents 100% similarity with more than two hundred sequences of several other soil fungi and bacteria,
leading the development of a new probe specific for Coccidioides. To obtain this new probe, all the 28S rDNA sequences of Coccidioides spp. and all other fungi deposited at GenBank until June 22, 2010, were aligned using the CLUSTAL X software . buy Duvelisib Probes were designed based on conserved sequences of Coccidioides spp., and BLASTn software was used to identify specific probes for Coccidioides . A probe designated RFA12 (5′-TCCCCCATGCTCCGGGCC-3′) presented 100% sensitivity and specificity for all 22 sequences of Coccidioides (8 of C. immitis and 14 of C. posadasii) deposited at GenBank until June 2008 and was used together with an previously described probe P2 (5′-CTCTGGCTTCACCCTATTC-3′)  to amplify a fragment of Coccidioides 28S rDNA of around 375 bp. It was also evaluated the efficiency of a semi-nested PCR system, by using the pair of learn more primers RFA12 and RFA13 (5′-TAATCATTCGCTTTACCTCA-3′) which amplify a fragment around 520 bp, in a step before the using of RFA12 and P2 primers. Standardization of PCR from soil samples To standardize a sensitive and specific molecular
tool for detecting Coccidioides spp. in soil, the following steps were performed: PCR for cultured microorganisms The PCR reaction mixture consisted of 1 μl of genomic DNA suspended in a mixture 5 μl 10 × PCR buffer (10 mM Tris (pH 9.0), 500 mM KCl), selleck chemicals crotamiton 2.5 μl of 10 mM dNTPs, 5 μl 25 mM MgCl2, 1 μl of each primer (RFA12/P2; 10 pmol/μl), 1.25 μl of 5 U AmpliTaq DNA polymerase, and 33.25 μl of MilliQ water. PCR amplification was
performed with the primers (RFA12/P2) in a DNA thermal cycler. The temperature profile included an initial denaturation step at 94°C for 5 min; 30 cycles of 94°C for 30 s, 55°C for 1 min 30 s, and 72°C for 1 min; followed by a single terminal extension at 72°C for 3 min. As negative control, water instead of template was performed at all PCR reactions. Semi-nested PCR for cultured microorganisms The reaction mixture of the the primary round PCR (RFA12/RFA13) consisted of 1 μl of DNA extract in a total volume of 50 μl with 5 μl 10 × PCR buffer (10 Mm Tris (pH 9.0), 500 mM KCl), 2.5 μl 10 mM dNTPs, 5 μl 25 mM MgCl2, 1 μl of each primer (10 pmol/μl), 1.25 μl of 5 U AmpliTaq DNA polymerase, and 33.25 μl of MilliQ water. The reaction cycles included an initial denaturation step at 94°C for 5 min; 20 cycles of 94°C for 30 s, 55°C for 1 min 30 s, and 72°C for 1 min; followed by a single terminal extension at 72°C for 3 min. Reaction mixtures of 2° PCR round (RFA12/P2) was identical, except by primers and 1 μl of the first reaction was added as template to the second reaction.