His chest was dull to percussion bilaterally, and he had decreased breath sounds bilaterally. His abdomen was non-tender. He had a closed but deformed left lower extremity below DMXAA chemical structure the knee. Pulses were intact and his foot was warm. Hemoglobin was 8.0. Chest x-ray showed homogeneous left chest opacity suggestive of hemothorax with nine broken ribs; his right chest
had one broken rib. A tibia-fibula x-ray showed a comminuted tibia-fibula fracture. The patient was given 2 liters of normal saline and one unit of packed red blood cells through a large bore peripheral intravenous line. A left chest tube was placed and returned 500 cc fresh blood. The patient was taken to the operating theatre for placement of an external fixation device for his leg fracture. The chest tube was removed hospital day five and the external fixator removed two months later and he was non-weight bearing until this time. Discussion The rural African experience differs from those injuries reported in more urban or developed areas of the world, where injuries secondary to animals often are from semi-domesticated farm animals or a result of motor traffic collisions rather than direct attacks [4, 5]. Other wild animal attacks commonly reported from the developed world are those Trichostatin A occurring in zoos
or animal sanctuaries . It is widely acknowledged that the growing human population in Africa has brought animals and humans into closer physical contact, and prompted higher rates of animal selleck attacks on humans . This appears increased during times of drought and decreased availability of crop food, as well as when humans venture off frequently used paths . It also is known that vervet monkeys and hyenas are living in close contact to human beings in rural East Africa, and humans are moving ever closer to the previously protected ecosystems of the elephant in Northwestern Tanzania [9, 10]. While
best documented in the Australian literature, human encounters with crocodiles–particularly in lake regions of southeast Africa–have also been described . Though our cases describe all direct animal to human attacks, the bush animals responsible Amrubicin for the attacks and their pattern of inflicting injury varied. Large cats and dogs attacking humans have demonstrated that they attack the face and neck region of their victims, attempting to cause submission of their prey by damaging the cervical spine region [12, 13]. The hyena, which resembles a dog but genetically is similar to a cat, followed this pattern in attacking our female patient. Injuries and deaths resulting from encounters with elephants most commonly result from trampling and less commonly secondary to a penetrating tusk stab wound . Unlike other animals that often only attack humans when their nesting or feeding area is threatened, crocodiles are considered “”opportunistic feeders”" that may attack unprovoked.