Further study demonstrated ALK cancer that GLGZD inhibited over-activation of astrocytes and apoptosis of neurons and GLGZD promoted up-regulation of neuronal specific marker neuron-specific nuclear (NeuN) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) in brain. Moreover, the in vitro study revealed that GLGZD treatment protected against NMDA-induced cell apoptosis
and neuronal loss, and promoted up-regulation of neuronal specific marker NeuN. Conclusions: Taken together, the present study demonstrates that GLGZD produces a protection in the MCAO model rats via inhibiting over-activation of astrocytes, apoptosis of neurons and up-regulation of neuronal specific marker NeuN and MAP-2. Our study reveals that GLGZD might be a potential neuroprotective agent for stroke and can provide basic data for clinical use. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background/Aims: Vascular disease is one of the critical complications of diabetes. A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress
plays a key role for vascular disease progression. Recent studies have demonstrated a strong link between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Methods: We investigated the anti-oxidative effects of a vitamin D analog, 22-oxacalcitriol (maxacalcitol), on vascular lesions in type 2 diabetic rats. ABT-263 price We used Spontaneously Diabetic Toni (SDT) rats, a model of non-obese type 2 diabetes. At 20 weeks of age, SDT rats were randomly divided into three groups: diabetes mellitus (DM, n = 10), DM + maxacalcitol (DM + D, n = 10), and DM + insulin (DM + I, n = 10). The rats were sacrificed at 30 weeks for the evaluation of blood and urine samples as well as histopathology and mRNA expression in the aorta. Results: Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion
and the 3-MA number of 8-OHdG-positive cells were significantly lower in the DM + I and DM + D groups than in the DM group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that NADPH p22 phox and NADPH p47 phox nnRNA levels were markedly decreased in the DM + I and DM + D groups compared with the DM group. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of MCP-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was significantly reduced in the DM + I and DM + D groups compared with the DM group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the vasoprotective effects of vitamin D are mediated by reducing oxidative stress. Copyright (C) 2013 S.