Figure 3 Characterization and expression of the ial gene and in vivo activity of the IAL in P. chrysogenum. (A) Southern blotting carried out
with genomic DNA extracted from the npe-10-AB·C and Wis54-1255 strains and digested with HindIII. The ial gene was used as probe. (B) HPLC ICG-001 ic50 analysis confirming the production of IPN by the npe10-AB·C strain. (C) Chromatogram showing the lack of 6-APA production in the npe10-AB·C strain. (D) Chromatogram showing the lack of benzylpenicillin production in the npe10-AB·C strain. (E) Northern blot analysis of the ial gene expression in npe-10-AB·C and Wis54-1255 strains. Expression of the β-actin gene was used as positive control. Overexpression of the ial gene in the P. chrysogenum npe10-AB·C strain To assure high levels of the ial gene transcript, this gene (without the point mutation at nucleotide 980) was amplified from P. chrysogenum Wis54-1255 and overexpressed using the strong gdh gene promoter. With this purpose, plasmid p43gdh-ial was co-transformed with plasmid pJL43b-tTrp into the P. chrysogenum npe10-AB·C strain. Transformants
were selected with phleomycin. Five randomly selected transformants were analyzed by PCR (data not shown) to confirm see more the presence of additional copies of the ial gene in the P. chrysogenum npe10-AB·C genome. Integration of the Pgdh-ial-Tcyc1 cassette into the transformants of the npe10-AB·C strain was confirmed by Southern blotting (Fig. 4A) using the PARP inhibitor complete ial gene as probe (see Methods).
Transformants T1, T7 and T72 showed the band with the internal wild-type ial gene (11 kb) plus a 2.3-kb band, which corresponds to the whole Pgdh-ial-Tcyc1 cassette. Densitometric analysis of the Southern blotting revealed that 1 copy of the full cassette was integrated in transformant T1, and 3–4 copies in transformants T7 and T72. Additional bands, which are a result Clomifene of the integration of incomplete fragments of this cassette, were also visible in these transformants. Transformant T7 was randomly selected and expression of the ial gene was confirmed by northern blotting using samples obtained from mycelia grown in CP medium (Fig. 4B). This transformant was named P. chrysogenum npe10-AB·C·ial. Figure 4 Overexpression of the ial gene in the P. chrysogenum npe10- AB · C strain. (A) The npe10-AB·C strain was co-transformed with plasmids p43gdh-ial and the helper pJL43b-tTrp. Different transformants were randomly selected (T1, T7, T20, T39 and T72) and tested by Southern blotting after digestion of the genomic DNA with HindIII and KpnI. These enzymes release the full Pgdh-ial-Tcyc1 cassette (2.3 kb) and one 11.0-kb band, which includes the internal wild-type ial gene. Bands of different size indicate integration of fragments of the Pgdh-ial-Tcyc1 cassette in these transformants. Genomic DNA from the npe10-AB·C strain [C] was used as positive control. The λ-HindIII molecular weight marker is indicated as M.