Existence of a saline aquifer

Existence of a saline aquifer see more imposes several types of constraints on phreatophyte E-G, which need to be considered in models of plant water uptake. The heterogeneous nature of saltcedar E-G over river terraces introduces potential errors into estimates of ET by wide-area methods.”
“Intrinsically noisy mechanisms drive most physical, biological and economic phenomena. Frequently, the system’s state

influences the driving noise intensity (multiplicative feedback). These phenomena are often modelled using stochastic differential equations, which can be interpreted according to various conventions (for example, Ito calculus and Stratonovich calculus), leading to qualitatively different solutions. Thus, a stochastic differential equation-convention pair must be determined from the available experimental data before being able to predict the system’s behaviour under new conditions. Here we experimentally demonstrate that the convention for a given system may vary with the operational conditions: we show that a noisy electric circuit shifts from obeying Stratonovich calculus to obeying Ito calculus. We track such a transition to the underlying dynamics of the system and, in particular, to the ratio between the driving noise correlation time and the feedback delay time. We discuss possible implications of

our conclusions, supported by numerics, for biology and economics.”
“Background: It has been reported that exposure to electromagnetic MEK162 fields influences intracellular signal transduction. We studied the effects of exposure to a time-varying 1.5 T magnetic field on membrane properties, membrane cation transport and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in

relation to signals. We also studied the mechanism of the effect of exposure to the magnetic field on intracellular Ca2+ release from Ca2+ stores in adrenal chromaffin cells.\n\nMethods: We measured the physiological functions of ER, actin protein, and mitochondria with respect to a neurotransmitter-induced increase in Ca2+ in chromaffin cells exposed to the time-varying 1.5 T magnetic field for 2 h.\n\nResults: Exposure to the magnetic field selleckchem significantly reduced the increase in [Ca2+]i. The exposure depolarized the mitochondria membrane and lowered oxygen uptake, but did not reduce the intracellular ATP content. Magnetic field-exposure caused a morphological change in intracellular F-actin. F-actin in exposed cells seemed to be less dense than in control cells, but the decrease was smaller than that in cytochalasin D-treated cells. The increase in G-actin (i.e., the decrease in F-actin) due to exposure was recovered by jasplakinolide, but inhibition of Ca2+ release by the exposure was unaffected.\n\nConclusions and general significance: These results suggest that the magnetic field-exposure influenced both the ER and mitochondria, but the inhibition of Ca2+ release from ER was not due to mitochondria inhibition.

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