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“Background Proteins play crucial roles in virtual pharmaceutical science covering cytokine, antibody, enzyme, supplements, and vaccine [1–5]. Considerable progress in the molecular biology and genetic engineering during the past 3 decades has led to a significant increase in the number of approved protein drugs covering nearly 150 diseases [6]. Protein has several advantages over small molecule drugs [7]. However, proteins are prone to denaturation and degradation, owning to their flexible structure which brought forward several formidable challenges in the process of formulation, storage, and in vivo release [8–10].

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